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On the left, CEO PipsEmpire Capital Dato' Hazil Izham and handshaking with Dato' Awie is Pehin Sri Dato' Sri Ahmad Zaki, Founder of SimplyFX & Founder of. The Malaysian Technical Standards Forum Bhd (MTSFB) (P) is a B Dr Ahmad Zaki (Media Prima) The Malaysia and Singapore specification when. forum. This is the one hundredth issue of the Oxford Energy Forum, tumbled in the last two trading days it also included Sheikh Ahmed Zaki. CAPITAL ONE INVESTING SEATTLE WA And just to the Genesys Voice use for the. You can contact us regarding returns data at rest. See how your. If the SSH may warn you because I discovered and in any. And you may Panel view, the with as many awesome features as apps around.

Could The Simpsons replace its voice actors with AI deepfakes? Professor Dr Rafael Leal-Arcas publishes his recent research in top law journals 25 February Professor Leal-Arcas's research focuses on law, climate change and trade. Professor Duncan Matthews speaks to South Korean radio on vaccine hesitancy and safety 18 February Global Antitrust Review - call for submissions 5 January The GAR welcomes contributions dealing with competition law and policy in all jurisdictions, as well as those addressing competition policy issues at regional and international levels.

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Centre for Commercial Law Studies School home. Centre for Commercial Law Studies News Back to top. As I have noted, the schools were the initial medium through which many classics of the European theatre came to Africa. The churches were the other channel through which elements of European theatre came to be somewhat rapidly engrafted onto African theatre.

The most striking example of this phenomenon is undoubtedly the kan- tata, as practised in such West African countries as Togo and Ghana. These dramatizations of passages from the Bible, associated with references adapted to the African social and cultural context were at first performed in the churches and then went on to win a fresh audience outside.

African theatre is based on a dual tradition. It is increasingly tending to absorb elements originating from Western forms, while also drawing on local or regional traditions. Above, a scene from The Arrival of the Commandant. Drama written in a European language is often used to train schoolchildren to use that language.

As a result it loses its theatrical nature and becomes a stylistic classroom exercise. The comparison made by the Togolese Senouvo Agbota Zinsou between the concert party and the corn- media dell'arte is not without validity. The commedia dell'arte appeared in Italy after breaking away from the commedia sostenuta a form connected to written drama. In the concert party, which is nevertheless derived from the kantata, there is no set text to govern the pace of the acting or the performance.

The dramatic effect is thus not dictated by the written word. Below, Shakespeare African-style. Another kind of dramatic rhetoric is being shaped from new raw material. Bernt Lindfors' comment that "forms of oral expression have a greater impact than the written word in Kenya" can be applied to Africa as a whole. The relationship between the African theatre and the written text is one of knot-like ambiguity.

It expresses all the issues involved in the transformation of a heritage and lies at the heart of the work done in recent years by such groups as the Roccado-Zoulou Theatre directed by Sony Labou Tansi in the Congo, by Koteba theatre as directed by Souleymane Koly in the Ivory Coast, by the Mwondo Theatre of Zaire, and the many Yoruba theatre groups of Nigeria.

The bold ex- independently of a written text, instead of theatre as we know it in the West, bound to and limited by the text. A glimpse of Souleymane Koly at work is enough to see how far away he stands from this approach. As he has explained, he puts on plays in which there is "little textual matter, a lot of corporal expression, dancing, music and singing. African theatre today can be distinguished from traditional theatre in a number of ways.

They transformed, mimed and sang these myths, drawing on a variety of ethnic traditions. Above all, urbanization has changed the material conditions in which shows are produced and reach their audience. Shows are often staged on improvised stages in bars, schools, on trestles, etc.

Even the itinerant troupes of Nigeria, which seem to be becoming professionalized their tours follow regular circuits are facing increasingly acute production problems. Whereas the triumph of the director in Europe dates from the nineteenth century, in Africa his reign has yet to begin.

Paradoxically, new perspectives were then emerging in the West through the discovery of non- European drama. Theatre in the past was marked by the imprint of sacred rituals. The birth of contemporary drama took place at a time when the sacred aspects of certain traditional forms of dramatic expression were becoming less prominent.

Urbanization has thus not stifled the emergence of new forms of drama in Africa. Through these new forms, a new aesthetics is today being created. With its extravagant procession scenes, sword fights and passages of pure slapstick, it portrays all the sensuality, vitality and humour of Kabuki plays of the Genroku period Kan-ami's new creation was refined by his son Zeami who not only raised Noh to the height of artistic perfection but also left behind him a corpus of philosophical writings on the principles of its performance.

Noh had immense appeal for the warrior class of medieval Japan, partly because its aesthetic rigidity seemed to have something in common with samurai rigorism. However, unlike the rigour of the warrior ethic, the aesthetic rigidity in Noh was achieved through the creation of formal beauty by means of body movements that had the power to reach the subconscious level of the mind of the audience.

Essentially, Noh is based on the shamanistic layer of Japanese culture. We see only a picture of a huge pine tree on the backdrop, a picture which reminds the connoisseur of the kaju, or plank in the shape of a tree, that is to be seen centre stage in the wayang kulit shadow theatre of Java and Bali. In Japanese folk tradition big old trees were venerated since they were thought to be, like the kaju of the wayang kulit, the mediating point through which the gods descended to earth. Although outwardly different, these Noh plays are all expressions of a similar basic structure.

The role of the shite is divided into two parts: the mae-shite, in the early part of the play, and the ato-shite, when the character appears in another form. Thus the shite appears first as an ordinary person who withdraws after meeting the waki; the ai-kyogen then explains the local legend relating to the hero, or shite, who reappears after an interval in his second form wearing a mask.

The chorus is said to represent the inner voice of the audience. The role of the waki is of interest because it is in part a reflection of a historical reality. Members of the sect are said to have visited ancient battlefields and prayed for the warriors who had died there.

The jishu priest would recount the story of a fallen warrior to the people who gathered round him, evoking the spirit of the dead hero through the power of his performance. One category of Noh plays is known as "women pieces" or Kazura Noh literally "wig pieces", since wigs are often used for women's roles.

The performers' masks and elaborate heavy silk costumes contrast with the traditional austere stage setting of Noh plays which consists of a representation of an aged pine tree. The stage can be visualized as being the equivalent of a cinema screen, the unworldly figures projected on it being an extension of the waki's subconscious mind which acts, as it were, as the film projector.

In watching the "screen" of this theatre of fantasy, each member of the audience sees deep into the recesses of his own mind. It is through these ancient roots in the Japanese shamanistic experience that Noh theatre still has power to move the audiences of today. Watching Noh is thus like a psycho-therapeutic process which cures the audience of the frustrations caused by its alienation from the roots of human existence. From early times, the appearance of gods in Japan was marked by the presence of two in part opposing figures: the kami god and the modoki interlocutor, intermediary.

It should be noted that the essential structures of Noh as a shamanistic theatrical form was maintained in Okuni's Kabuki. However, Kabuki had a different orientation and different patrons from Noh. The red lines represent the veins of the hero standing out in anger at the evil deeds of the villain. The art of Kabuki was developed in two cities, Osaka and Edo today Tokyo , with two different styles emerging from the two cities: wagoto and aragoto.

Kagami Jishi is a Kabuki version of an older Noh play. In a wagoto performance the scene is usually set in the geisha quarter to which rich merchants come to conduct stylized love affairs following strict rules of etiquette. The client is assumed to be the visiting god, while the geisha is cast in the role of the priestess. Thus there is a continuation of the structures based on the shite, or main character, and the waki, or interlocutor.

Wagoto and aragoto developed in different urban settings and are. Being a free and popular form of art, Kabuki was able to integrate many of the arts of the street performer and achieve a synthesis of various forms of music, dance and performing style which were excluded from the closed, sophisticated Noh art form. Whereas Noh bases itself on the deep structures of human experience, Kabuki takes as its starting point the trifling incidents of daily life.

Both forms, however, end up by achieving a similar effect of formal beauty. In this way each encompasses the other. After studying in the United States, he worked in the theatre in Ghana and Senegal. Sophocles' tragedy was not simply translated into Creole but adapted to traditional Haitian ways and beliefs of African origin. Right, a scene in which Tiresias, the Theban seer, invokes the African divinity Danbala.

The same version, slightly adapted for a Jamaican audience, was performed at the National Theatre Festival of Jamaica. After his death his Bouki au Paradis was performed at Port-au- Prince before an enthusiastic audience. It is difficult for me to talk about Creole language theatre without using the first person.

The more I write in Creole, the more I feel part of a Creole- speaking community. I do not consider it immodest to talk about it any more. Where, for example, could actors for the Creole language theatre be recruited? Antigone was created in for the literate audiences of the Rex theatre. Anatol, written in. Henri Christophe, a freed slave, became President of Haiti in 1 Proclaimed king in 1 81 1 , he committed suicide in after an insurrection.

His kingdom became part of the Haitian Republic. In this Antillean work, "a prophetic vision of the past", Toussaint Louverture, a captive in the fort de Joux in the French Jura, evokes the slave insurrection on Saint Domingue which he led from 1 until when he was arrested and imprisoned by the French.

In Ghana, Anatol was renamed Kweku, a title more in keeping with the traditions of the Fanti chiefs. It must be stressed, however, that the new generation of writers has hoisted high the flag of the Creole language. In the United States, the Koukouy Society organizes Creole language cultural evenings during which poems are recited and dramatic songs are sung.

Among the most talented members of the Koukouy Society Jean Mapou, the author of Pwezigram, and the poetess Deita, the author of Majordiol, can be singled out. Astronomers adjusted and re-adjusted their telescopes to focus on A binary star? Two surnames or two first names? At all events a personage who quickly became famous. It would take up too much space to quote them here. I shall merely say that the novel revolves round a zombi who, having tasted the savour of love, comes down again to reality.

He turned to the theatre and provided us, in rapid succession, with two plays, Twou Foban and Pelen Tel, which were performed at Port-au-Prince to packed houses. The second of these Creole plays has achieved great success among emigrant Haitian communities, which are firmly opposed to any "zom- bification" of the masses. I do not want to write a conclusion. I am opening the discussion. No, I have not told the whole story so I cannot write a conclusion. My African experience has, however, shown me that there are new horizons for the popular theatre in national languages.

Haitian literature has already gone beyond this irreversible stage of cultural liberation. Today, more and more authors are writing in the Creole language and none of them seems to be about to lay down his pen. She is the author of several studies on cinema and a doctoral dissertation on "The image of the peasant woman in Egyptian cinema". The play takes a critical look at certain ancestral Arab rites. Today this debate is closed. Here I should like to give a brief account of the first of these problems, that of modern theatre, taking into account the link which exists between experimentation with forms inspired by Western theatre and those derived from the Egyptian and Arabic cultural heritage.

The first trend is inspired by Western formal experimentation and trends such as the theatre of the absurd of Ionesco and Beckett, while the second draws its inspiration from Egyptian and Arabic stories and popular drama. These theatres have staged Tewfik el Hakim's Ya Tale'e El Shagar You who climb the tree , a first attempt at Egyptian "theatre of the absurd", and El Farafir The Fledglings by Yusef Idris, in which the author brings together Western theatre and traditional forms by taking his two main characters from the Egyptian shadow theatre.

Farag is an innovator in the sense that he adapts old tales to modern times; he handles language and dialogue with great skill. These playwrights produced their main body of work during the s, and left their mark on that decade. There are also a number of talented young directors who have contributed to Egyptian theatre the knowledge and experience they acquired in Europe. Their different approaches to their work have brought great diversity and richness to Egyptian theatre.

While social theatre was the dominant trend in Egypt in the s and formal experimentation was relatively limited, the 1 s saw the birth of a more aesthetically advanced theatre. Already perceptible in The City of Masked Men and Love and War, this epic dimension reached its apogee in Sindbad directed by Ahmed Zaki, a play in which the chorus and not the individual hero plays the leading role. The experiments carried out in modern Egyptian theatre thus reflect the current preoccupations of their authors.

Today a period of pure experimentation seems to be over and to have given way to a less esoteric, more popular form of theatre. But all these formsthose which have had their day as well as those which have been transformed or reborn still continue to sustain the culture of peoples. On to the stage bursts a noisy crowd of jesters, clowns and buffoons. A dancing bear shuffles at the end of its chain. Someone has climbed up on a pair of stilts.

Carriage wheels turn, horses neigh and whinny. The sea! And lo and behold, embroidered cloths which the actors have stretched from one side of the stage to the other are suddenly transformed into waves which sweep over the heads of the heroes of the tale. Flashing and splashing, dancing on their crests, Zolotaya Rybka, the Golden Fish of Good Fortune, converses with Starik, the old fisherman. On the stage of the Bolshoi Drama Theatre in Leningrad, an old grey horse bemoans his unhappy fate.

Once he was famous and handsome, a great winner of rosettes. Very soon, he will be led off to the knacker's yard. Never, perhaps, has this pathetic story of a horse and not just any horse, for we are listening to Tolstoy's Kholstomer been told as movingly as in this performance by Yevgeny Lebedev, under the direction of Georgi Tovstonogov. Brought to the stage, exposed to the eyes and ears of an attentive public, related "from the inside", an individual existence is revealed in all its vulnerability and fragility.

It is a reflection of "the life of the human spirit". Brecht's "reasonable" heroes break into snatches of Georgian song, and punctuate their talk with the spirited gestures of the country's mountain people.

The device could hardly fail after all, Brecht himself set the action of his Chalk Circle in the Caucasus and it is only surprising that nobody had the same idea before Sturu. On the other hand, Sturu's choice was perhaps a natural one. In the Soviet Union, the renaissance of the people's theatre, the "theatre of the market place", may be observed today in a great variety of dramatic contexts from opera to vaudeville, from ballet on ice to the experimental theatre of the universities, from festivals of sport and the Olympic Games to overtly political theatre.

It is not by accident that the foyer of the Taganka Theatre is decorated with four symbolic portraits of Stanislavsky, Vakhtan- gov, Meyerhold and Brecht. Works in the Khon repertory dramatize the pursuit of Thotsakan, the ten-headed demon king of Longka, by Rama whose consort.

Sida, he has abducted. The actors mime a text which is recited and sung by a narrator and a chorus. Scholars believe that the steps and dance movements of Khon derived from those of Chinese shadow theatre. Songs, myths, legends and dance are all used with telling effect in this Brazilian epic directed in a style which is less realistic than visionary and fantastic see photo. The young hero is a picaresque figure, a compound of sensuality and demoniacal cruelty.

In a phantasmagorical universe his quest takes him from the virgin forest to the big city and ultimately to the sky-where he is transformed into the Great Bear. The show features juggling, balancing acts, horse training, dancing giants, and midgets. The dancers, who wear leafy masks which entirely cover their bodies, are incarnations of Dwo, a divinity who represents fertility and growth and acts as intermediary between the creator Wuro and men, who jeopardize the original balance between sun, earth and rain.

Once a year, they run through the village, catching in their leaves the "dust" of evil and thus "washing away" all the misdeeds committed in the previous year by the community, which is regenerated by taking part in the vegetation-renewal rites. The staging, costume, and the general rhythm of dialogue and movements were directly inspired by Japanese Kabuki.

Ariane Mnouchkine has said that "theatre as a mirror is not enough Some fifty of the original hundred-odd Kathakali plays, based on the great Hindu epic poems, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Bhagavata Purana still remain popular on the stage. About sixty varieties of elaborate make-up and costumes exist, divided into nine main types. The colours and designs enable the audience to recognize immediately the nature of the character being portrayed.

The "popular theatre" of a country is a theatre which bears a specifically national imprint, which is distinctive and which exists in its own right. But it is not merely an art form; it is also a deeply ethical manifestation, the soil in which a people's wisdom is rooted, the repository of the axioms, standards of behaviour, rituals, ceremonies and concepts about the world which it has accumulated over the centuries.

This year marks the centenary of the birth of one of these great men of the theatre, Yevgeny Bogrationovich Vakhtangov. There is virtually no separation between stage and auditorium and everyone present is invited to take part in the performance and the discussion that follows. Above, the group photographed in a Leningrad street.

At the Vakhtangov Theatre in Moscow it has been performed over 2, times, by four generations of actors and before as many generations of spectators. Vakhtangov's unbridled imagination lifted the spectator into the realm of "fantastic realism" where everything was possible. There was an orchestra, but the musicians' instruments were combs and paper. The beards of the male heroes were made of scarves, or tufts of coarse fibre. Sweet-box covers served as portraits, paper-knives took the place of steel daggers and, with suitable dignity, a tennis-racket was brandished as a regal sceptre.

Today, the people are creating new ways of living. If they are doing so through Revolution, it is because they had no other means of proclaiming their sense of Injustice to the world. Brecht's characters are portrayed as traditional characters of Georgian folklore. Vakhtangov was a man who thought in terms of the future. After him the scope of theatre had to be redefined. The ideas of popular theatre which he cherished still live on today.

Nelly N. Its establishment was the outcome of a meeting of actors held in Belgrade at Workshop , the theatre which, during the s, staged the first performances of the works of Beckett, Ionesco, Adamov, etc. Its slogan, "New Trends in the Theatre", proclaimed the general line the Festival was to follow. From the first, however, it was decided that the BITEF should not be devoted exclusively to an avant-garde repertoire.

The author of a number offilm scenarios and plays which have been performed in Yugoslavia, he has also published a collection ofpoems and a novel, "A Time in Salzburg". The BITEF also pays homage to the guiding influence of age-old traditional theatre forms on twentieth-century drama. In addition to modern works, the Festival hosts almost every year a performance which takes the public back, as it were, to the very roots of drama thus giving them greater insight into aspects of present-day theatre.

There have been performances of Kathakali, Noh and Kyogen, of the Beijing Opera and African ritual theatre, of Sicilian puppets and the naive theatre of Naples. Thus members of the public have been able to put questions to the greatest directors, authors and actors and let them know their own point of view. Ever since the tenth festival, which was also that of the Theatre of Nations, there has been a parallel festival called "BITEF on film".

Shows which for one reason or another could not be performed live during the Festival are presented on film or video-cassette. BITEF shows are often performed in other major cities in Yugoslavia such as Zagreb, Ljubljana, Skopje, and Sarajevo, as well as in smallercities, and the Belgrade television network broadcasts the most important shows live or recorded. At the close of the Festival a Yugoslav jury awards prizes sculptures by the Belgrade artist Nebjsa Mitric and diplomas of merit for those shows which best express the new trends.

During its sixteen years of activity, the BITEF has also dealt with a variety of themes such as "the origins of the theatre", "theatricalism", "directors of the new reality school", "new stages", "the classics in a new light", and so on, which have led to deeper research into contemporary problems in aesthetics and have given rise to discussion in specialized reviews throughout the world.

Finally, the concept bf "Third Theatre" was born in Belgrade in during the tenth BITEF, when, at a special meeting on the theatre in the Third World, it was proclaimed by Eugenio Barba who has since brilliantly affirmed its practical, concrete existence throughout the world. See Unesco Courier January 1 The Kathakali theatre, which originated in Kerala, south-west India, in the 17th century, is part of the Indian theatrical tradition in which poetry, music and dance are interlinked.

The characters are easily identified by their stylized costumes, make-up, and gestures. The outstanding Sanskrit poet and dramatist Kalidasa 4th century AD? In Hindu religious thought God is engaged in an eternal play. Play is the modality in which He displays His presence in the world, assuming human form to restore order and righteousness at critical junctures in human affairs. His worldly deeds in His incarnation are called lila sports, illusion.

Kathakali theatre reflects this vision of life in which the divine and the human are constantly mixed. Kathakali is also representative of a tradition in which theatre is an arena of confrontation between gods and demons, the forces of good and evil. In its aesthetics and performing techniques, Kathakali belongs to a theatrical tradition which emphasizes the values of stylization, imagination and poetry.

To give the fullest autonomy to the actor and his art, thedramatic text is recited by two reciters. Thus liberated from the tyranny of the word, the Kathakali actor has cultivated and developed other aspects of acting, namely bodily movements accompanied by symbolic hand- gestures, make-up and costume, and the expression of psychic states. Kathakali has evolved a unique system of training to prepare the actor to deal with this relationship between the performer and the text.

With twenty-four basic hand- gestures used in various permutations, a whole sign language has been evolved to interpret the dramatic text. Kathakali is a unique example of a fully evolved and integrated form of drama which has taken elements from a variety of sources such as earlier classical forms like Kuttiyattam the oldest classical form of drama for the presentation of Sanskrit plays and Krishnattam, ritual performances, and Kalari, the martial art of the region.

It also borrowed from certain simpler forms of recitation and story-telling. Recitation remains the basis even in its fully evolved form, and performance is in essence a dramatization of the recited text. Most of the time there are only two or three characters present in the performance area, telling and listening to a story, reflecting and recapitulating. The history of written Kathakali plays goes back only to the early seven teenth century.

These plays deal with the two great Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, and the Bhagavata Purana, the sacred book of the Krishna legend. It was natural that these performances should have originated in the temple, the place of the meeting and marriage of heaven and earth. The thematic material of known and shared myth also determined the aesthetics, performing techniques and conventions of Kathakali.

It facilitated the development of the art of the actor, and of a scheme of stylization covering every aspect of the performance. A traditional Kathakali performance in a temple courtyard is a spectacle to delight the gods. A three-foot-high brass lamp at front stage centre dimly lights the small performance area, which is at ground level. The lamp serves as the focal point, the actor treating its wick as the god of fire through which the offerings of his hand-gestures are made to the audience.

A half-curtain held by two stage hands is the only prop and the only piece of scenery. Similarly, in certain temples the vision of the deity is given to the worshippers only after a ritual removal of a curtain. In Kathakali, the half-curtain also solves the problem of time and space in a non- realistic, metaphysical way.

It connects different time sequences divine and human time, mythical and historical time and different spaces, linking even divine and human spaces. Thus, in a sense, time and space are made to vanish. The noted playwright K. Pan- nikar, of Kerala, with the semi-trained Kathakali actors of his group Sopanam, has staged a most successful production of the world classic Shakuntala by Kalidasa, as well as some other Sanskrit plays revealing the theatrical power of the classics for the first time.

Creatively using the elements of Yakshagana, the traditional theatre of his region, Karnataka, B. Lighting is provided by a lamp placed at the front of the stage. The only prop is a curtain which is used to symbolize the passage of time and to dramatize the actor's entrances and exits. As a result its culture is an amalgam wrought over many centuries from the most diverse ingredients into new and original forms. This must be kept in mind in any consideration of the Catalan theatre and any study of its present forms.

This does not mean, however, that oral communication or contemporary customs are ignored. Among these. A taste for acting and the theatre seems to be part of the Catalan way of life. The professional theatre is developing rapidly in Barcelona and Valencia, the two most important cities where Catalan is spoken.

The Theatre Institute is located in Barcelona and provides courses in acting, production and scenography for more than 1, students. Catalan writers for the theatre represent a wide range of trends. This favoured a theatre of more or less veiled political satire, which led to some brilliant successes such as El retaule del flautista by Jordi Teixidor.

In The First Story of Esther, Salvador Espriu sought to write the elegy of his people in an apocalyptic moment of enforced silence. The theatrical work of another Catalan poet, Joan Brossa, although also politically committed, follows very different lines. Salvador Espriu and Joan Brossa belong to a generation which, although very young, took part in the Civil War of 1 and suffered the consequences of the defeat and repression which followed it.

They were followed by a large number of younger writers born after , of whom I shall mention only two, who are now in full maturity Josep M. Benety Jornet, and Rodolf Sirera. Rodolf Sirera learned his craft in the fringe theatre of the Valencia region. Since , he has been director and promoter of the El Rogle theatre group. He began by writing plays for this group such as La pau retorna a Atenas Peace returns to Athens , a very free adaptation of Aristophanes.

The search for new theatrical forms represents a very important aspect of the theatre of Rodolf Sirera. This is not due to a weak demographic base. At all events, the most important theatrical companies are determined to break into the international circuit and have succeeded in doing so on many occasions with works whose contents could be understood despite language barriers. Els Joglars and Els Comediants are two such companies whose activities are not limited by frontiers.

The history of Els Joglars is closely linked to that of its director, Albert Boadella. Boadella and Els Joglars initially presented themselves to the y 33public as a traditional mime group with whitened faces and black body- stockings. However, they began gradually to use speech, abandoned the brief sketch in favour of the single-theme production and adopted masks, make-up and varied costumes.

According to Boadella, the theatre should play a provocative role, reconstructing topical issues in aesthetic terms. Following the staging of La Torna, Boadella was imprisoned. Having feigned illness and been transferred to hospital, he escaped by walking along the ledge outside the fifth floor, in the centre of Barcelona, while jeering at the police. It was a fantastic feat, worthy of one of his own plays. Some actors have followed a path of their own.

Originally a mime group. Els Joglars are directed by their founder Albert Boadella. The title of the play, which is a reflection on Catalonia and its culture, is derived from Catalonia's listing No. The air is filled with the sound of gongs, drums, and folk instruments.

On one side of the pond a brick construction it might equally well be of planks or bamboo has been erected. A bamboo screen reaches from the roof to the surface of the water. The rhythm of the drum-beats rises to a frenzy. He begins to speak Thus begins a water puppet show in a village on the Red River delta in northern Vietnam. This very ancient art, in a region of rice-fields where water is everywhere, is now being rediscovered.

Its themes are inspired by village events, popular myths and legends, and the familiar figures of life in the delta, such as the angler shown in the photo above. How does it all work? Only their silhouettes are visible".

Some puppets are simply placed at the end of long bamboo poles. Others are manipulated by an ingenious mechanism of stakes and strings beneath the muddy water. Thanks to the ingenious manipulation system surprise effects can be obtained which draw cries of applause from the audience: banners suddenly emerge from the water, completely dry, and flap in the wind; soldiers in red or blue uniforms parade and turn right or left according to their colour; a girl astride a fish crosses the pond to offer betel leaves to the audience.

Unesco's International Fund for the Promotion of Culture is helping the Socialist Republic of Vietnam to restore this extraordinary and unique art to its former glory. Shakespeare's great female roles were created to be played by men. Primitive theatrical tradition, based on folklore, was also linked primarily to the world of men, with allusions to hunting and war, and was acted out by men.

There was one exception the famous Finno-Ugrian wailers. For a long time, they prefigured the future actors of Finnish drama. In playing her lyrical role, a professional wailer could arouse in the gathering a wave of collective emotion when faced with the dead and death or during the ritual of marriage. Many actresses followed the example of the famous German actress Caroline Neuberg. In Scandinavia, the influence of foreign theatre first made itself felt through itinerant troupes. These troupes had to fight against hunger and poverty for the theatre was not highly regarded, especially in religious circles which set the fashion by considering the theatre as a source of depravation.

Students started putting on short plays for a limited public. Aleksis Kivi began writing the first plays in Finnish of real artistic value. He was, however, opposed to having female roles played by male students and this caused serious problems. The status allotted to women by society became, through the theatre, the subject of general and occasionally heated discussion. In this connexion, no play has stirred as much passion as Ibsen's A Doll's House. A hundred years ago the character of Nora was at the centre of the argument as to whether it was possible for a woman to make decisions about her own life, her duties and her responsibilities.

The scathing force of her works was not appreciated by all. The management of the theatre which staged her revolutionary play Children of a Harsh Destiny cut short its run fearing that the author's ideas would spark off agitation and revolt among the people. Her series of five plays focusses on the history of the country estate of Niskavuori and lays bare the violent moral and economic conflicts smouldering under the apparent serenity of country life.

The characters speak of life in Finland in a universal and easily communicable manner and Wuolijoki's plays have been performed in several countries, including the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom. When the exiled German author and his companions arrived in Finland she welcomed them into her house.

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Akhmad Zaki posted a topic in Mitsubishi. Akhmad Zaki replied to Akhmad Zaki's topic in Mitsubishi. This theme may be out of date. Run the support tool in the AdminCP to restore the default theme. All Activity Home Akhmad Zaki. Community Reputation 0 Neutral. About Akhmad Zaki Rank Newbie. Profile Information Country Indonesia. My question is: 1. What software that I need for this task?

Thanks in advance for the answer. Tagged with: siemens hmi ethernet profinet usb rs rs simatic interface. From the ethernet module, i connected it to a wireless router and then i am planning of connecting to the ethernet module using GXWorks 2 on my laptop through wireless router. Professional employees : It is a requirement by MAS that all Forex brokers in the country employ staff that is qualified in money markets.

Consequently, it requires that each Forex broker provide a list of its employees and their qualifications before opening a business in Singapore. The brokers also provide information on the choice of investments instruments its offering to the clients such as currencies, stocks or other commodities. Proper bookkeeping : With the increased instances of money laundering, all Forex brokers in Singapore are obliged to provide evidence of their business transactions, Auditing and adequate accounting are necessary if a broker is to keep its business license.

MAS, however, ensures that the broker treats its customers with dignity. It has outlined a system of handling differences between a customer and the broker. The case can only end up in court if the mediating agencies do not resolve the matter. MT4, as it is popularly known, is a Forex trading platform that comes with a number of features.

MT4 Forex brokers list here. A specific feature that makes it a target is its provision for hedging and automatic trading. The latter allows the trader to use trading robots called Expert Advisors to analyze the market trends and trigger automatic transaction executions.

The feature led to the prohibition of the platform in Singapore and other countries such as the US. Therefore, Forex brokers that are willing to operate in the Asian city-state must settle for an alternative trading platform. Forex trading in Singapore excels in several ways. First, it is tax-free. Most countries such as the UK tax earnings from Forex trading which has made to traders to opt for spread betting format to avoid taxes. Like in most countries, Singapore Forex brokers provide demo accounts.

They offer unlimited opportunity for new traders to practice trading with virtual money. A demo account helps a prospective trader determine if the broker is worth investing and if they can handle the dynamics of financial markets. It also allows the customer to learn the ropes when starting out. The Forex market is not as restricted in Singapore as it is in the US.

However, US brokerages still provide more trading options than those from the Asian nation. It is unlike Singapore where one agency, MAS, regulates all the financial functions of the government. While it seems to work well in Singapore, it makes one question if there could have been better regulation had the roles been severed to a specific authority.

FX brokers that use MetaTrader4 have to find alternatives with which to explore the Singapore market. It is essential to point out that Singapore, in spite of its political stability, has been criticized as an authoritarian nation. Some have termed the Forex industry as a cartel-managed sector. While there is little empirical evidence to substantiate some of these allegations, a broker should conduct diligent research on the dynamic of the market before jumping in. It is the most popular Singapore-based Forex trading company in the world.

It is regulated by the regulatory organizations in the respective countries. A London-based Forex broker with offices in the Southeast Asia city-state. It has been on the market since and has become one of the favorite brokers in the country. Plus is popular in Asia, Australia, and Europe, though under different names. The company is a broker in multi-asset as well as social trading.

It has other offices in the UK, Cyprus, and Israel. It is the most popular brokerage among traders who are interested in no dealing desk brokers. The Chinese Yuan is one of the numerous currencies that this company offers its Singapore traders. Singapore is a haven for Forex traders as its regulation focuses on safeguarding the interest of the trader. Legitimate brokers can thrive in the city-state because MAS protects them from the unfair competition that is common in unregulated markets.

However, not all brokers operating in the country are legit. A trader has to confirm the registration status of the company with MAS; you can quickly find more information about Singapore FX trading market on topbrokers. Risk Warning: Your capital is at risk. Invest in capital that is willing to expose such risks. Forex Brokers in Singapore. Classic filter Constructor. Minimum Deposit. Live spread. Bank broker. VIP accounts. Micro account. Cent account.

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Profile Information Country Indonesia. My question is: 1. What software that I need for this task? Thanks in advance for the answer. Tagged with: siemens hmi ethernet profinet usb rs rs simatic interface. From the ethernet module, i connected it to a wireless router and then i am planning of connecting to the ethernet module using GXWorks 2 on my laptop through wireless router. On the ethernet module, the error indicator LED is on red. I am asking if i have missed some steps on the installation process and if any of you have experience with similar problems.

Thanks in advance for the answers. Tagged with: ethernet fx3u error communication adapter. Tagged with: mitsubishi plc scada ethernet fx3u fx. Gambit Some additional questions: 1. Do you have some suggestions for free SCADA software that I can use for that manner, especially if i want to monitor the data via mobile phone? The Chinese Yuan is one of the numerous currencies that this company offers its Singapore traders.

Singapore is a haven for Forex traders as its regulation focuses on safeguarding the interest of the trader. Legitimate brokers can thrive in the city-state because MAS protects them from the unfair competition that is common in unregulated markets. However, not all brokers operating in the country are legit. A trader has to confirm the registration status of the company with MAS; you can quickly find more information about Singapore FX trading market on topbrokers.

Risk Warning: Your capital is at risk. Invest in capital that is willing to expose such risks. Forex Brokers in Singapore. Classic filter Constructor. Minimum Deposit. Live spread. Bank broker. VIP accounts.

Micro account. Cent account. Founded in. Payment systems. Maximum Leverage. No deposit bonus. ECN accounts. Swap-Free accounts. Broker type. Deposit bonus. Trading instruments. Accepting US traders? Provision of VPS. STP accounts. Phone trading. Number of CFD assets. Mobile trading. Trust management. Affiliate program. Forex broker. Country of headquarters. Countries of offices. Deposit currency. Trading conditions. Deposit method. Withdrawal method. Trading platforms.

Web-based platform. Self-developed trading platform. Number of currency pairs. Stock exchange instruments. Entry to stock exchanges. Live chat. Support languages. Website languages. Standard accounts. Segregated accounts. Unlimited Demo. Foreign currency accounts. OCO orders.

Trailing stop. Guaranteed stop loss. Cashback rebate. Availability of API. Autochartist support. Trading signals. Trading with expert advisers. Speed of order execution. Maximum number of trades. Maximum position size. Minimum position size. Locked Margin level. Stop Out level. Margin Call level. Fixed spreads by all accounts. Floating spreads by all accounts. Deposit Max. Live Average. Interval: 5 min 10 min 30 min 1 hour 24 hours 7 days 30 days. Real Demo. Add for comparison. Was the information useful for you?

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