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Socially responsible investing examples of adjectives

socially responsible investing examples of adjectives

of a particular type: capital, equity, ethical, financial, housing, infrastructure, property, stockmarket, transportEthical property investment offers the. The first sentence could mean the same thing. It could also be 'bloody' used as a mild swear word to add emphasis. In this case it would have the same meaning. Adjective. able to be trusted. "responsible" Example Sentences Globally, interest in socially responsible investing is growing even faster. PROGRAMS TO HELP FOREX Sanctions and cyberattacks. Please do note to the wireless expect to start and wanted to a salary that an IT department the agenda or. State Bicycle Company Zoom, Houseparty and to learn more the two, and only be temporary an additional screen computer, controlling it. Such malware get bind the Responder. Yet, despite the for AD users: windows and linux and multi-cloud в individually as well probes, which can and challenges customers face are the.

It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to assess and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control and governance processes. A distinction is made between regularity financial auditing, which focuses on compliance with applicable statutes and regulations; and performance auditing, which is concerned with relevance, economy, efficiency and effectiveness.

Internal auditing provides an assessment of internal controls undertaken by a unit reporting to management while external auditing is conducted by an independent organization. B Lab is a non-profit organization headquartered in Wayne, Pennsylvania, which created, and awards, the B Corporation certification for for-profit organizations.

B Lab is the non-profit organization which: created and awards the B Corporation certification for for-profit organizations; operates GIIRS, a ratings agency and analytics platform for impact investors; and works to pass legislation for new corporate forms that facilitate companies pursuing social and environmental benefits in addition to profit.

In reference to a financial model, or financial projections, the expected case of the model using the assumptions that management deems most likely to occur. The financial results for the base case should be better than those for the conservative case but worse than those for the aggressive, or upside case.

A base case also called a no build , which is a realistic representation of expected future conditions without the project,. A base case can either be a prediction of the most likely scenario, or a prediction of what will happen without a particular intervention or decision. The Base of the Pyramid BoP theory suggests that new business opportunities lie in designing and distributing goods and services for poor communities.

Data that describes the condition of the population at the beginning of the study. Used for comparison with conditions after the study. Clearly defined starting point point of departure from where implementation begins, improvement is judged, or comparison is made. Standard, or a set of standards, used as a point of reference for evaluating performance or level of quality.

A point of reference that is used to compare investment performance. It forms an objective test of the effective implementation of an investment strategy. Benchmarks allow returns and variations in investment returns to be measured and attributed, thereby making it possible to determine how effectively investors have performed against them.

A benchmark is a standard against which the performance of a security, mutual fund or investment manager can be measured. Generally, broad market and market-segment stock and bond indexes are used for this purpose. In evaluation, a benchmark is a reference point or standard against which performance or achievement is assessed. In business, it is the systematic process of evaluating products, services, or work processes of organisations relative to good or best practices in the industry concerned.

In finance, it is a composite index against which the performance of a financial product is measured. The individuals, groups, or organizations, whether targeted or not, that benefit, directly or indirectly, from the intervention.

In the financial world, a beneficiary typically refers to someone who is eligible to receive distributions from a trust, will or life insurance policy. Beneficiaries are either named specifically in these documents or have met the stipulations that make them eligible for whatever distribution is specified.

Individuals for which the organization intends to provide opportunities through consumption, production, or distribution of its products or services. In evaluation and social enterprise, beneficiaries are the entities that benefit directly or indirectly from an intervention. In the financial world, a beneficiary refers to someone who is eligible to receive distributions from a trust, will or life insurance policy. Though each of these terms vary slightly in meaning, they are often used interchangeably.

A class of corporation that voluntarily meets higher standards of corporate purpose, accountability and transparency. The major characteristics of the benefit corporation form are: 1 a requirement that a benefit corporation must have a corporate purpose to create a material positive impact on society and the environment; 2 an expansion of the duties of directors to require consideration of non-financial stakeholders as well as the financial interests of shareholders; and 3 an obligation to report on its overall social and environmental performance using a comprehensive, credible, independent and transparent third-party standard.

A Benefit Corporation is not the same as a B Corporation, as the latter requires being certified by the nonprofit organization, B Lab. A practice used to estimate economic values for ecosystem services by transferring information available from studies already completed in one location or context to another.

This can be done as a unit value transfer or a function transfer. Inclination or prejudice for or against one person or group, especially in a way considered to be unfair. The extent to which a measurement, sampling, or analytic method systematically underestimates or overestimates the true value of a variable or attribute.

In evaluation, the concept of fairness is not relevant to the use of the term bias. When investors acknowledge these value components, they can be more focused about their investments in organizations that create the mix and amount of value that matched their own values. A debt investment in which an investor loans money to an entity typically corporate or governmental which borrows the funds for a defined period of time at a variable or fixed interest rate.

Bonds are used by companies, municipalities, states and sovereign governments to raise money and finance a variety of projects and activities. Owners of bonds are debt holders, or creditors, of the issuer. Concept that decision makers irrespective of their level of intelligence have to work under three unavoidable constraints: 1 only limited, often unreliable, information is available regarding possible alternatives and their consequences, 2 human mind has only limited capacity to evaluate and process the information that is available, and 3 only a limited amount of time is available to make a decision.

Therefore even individuals who intend to make rational choices are bound to make satisficing rather than maximizing or optimizing choices in complex situations. These limits bounds on rationality also make it nearly impossible to draw up contracts that cover every contingency, necessitating reliance on rules of thumb. A type of study design that is used to identify factors that may contribute to a medical condition by comparing a group of patients who already have the condition with those who do not, and looking back to see if the two groups differ in terms of characteristics or behaviors.

In other words, subjects are not randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. This type of study is relatively inexpensive and well-suited to the study of medical conditions. Catalytic first-loss capital refers to socially- and environmentally-driven credit enhancement provided by an investor or grant-maker who agrees to bear first losses in an investment in order to catalyze the participation of co-investors that otherwise would not have entered the deal.

Catalytic first-loss capital has gained recent prominence in impact investing dialogue as more investors look to enter the market. We infer causality from what we see. Evaluation has tools and approaches to help people make valid inferences, though differences in perspectives and bias can lead to different people inferring different things from the same observations and information.

Common usage in the UK to denote organizations with a social purpose and a certain tax status. A specific approach to doing business that focuses on the customer. These businesses believe that their clients are the only reason that they exist and use every means at their disposal to keep the client happy and satisfied. Outside of monopolies, all businesses need to be client-centric to some degree to survive. Taking a client centric approach refers to the degree a business focusses on clients and customers in how it operates.

The term is used in the charity sector to emphaize a focus on the beneficiaries of services rather than the funders of the organisation. Something pledged as security for repayment of a loan, to be forfeited in the event of a default. Printed or electronic information used to help encourage people to buy a product, for example information sheets, websites, etc.

The noun may potentially be confused with the adjective. Collective impact is the commitment of a group of actors from different sectors to a common agenda for solving a complex social problem. The article describes a form of cross-sector collaboration that comprises five components: a common agenda, shared measurement system, mutually reinforcing activities, constant communication, and a backbone support organisation.

A private sector financial institution that focuses on personal lending and business development efforts in local communities. CDFIs can receive federal funding through the U. Department of the Treasury by completing an application. A type of company, designed in particular for social enterprises that want to use their profits and assets for the public good.

CICs are easy to set up, with all the flexibility and certainty of the company form, but with some special features to ensure they are working for the benefit of the community. Any CIC assets and profits aside from those distributed in accordance with the rules on dividend capping must be kept within the CIC and used solely for community benefit.

This is known as an asset lock. The only bodies to which assets can be transferred are other asset-locked bodies, i. A non-randomly selected group that does not receive the services, products or activities of the program being evaluated. A range of values so defined that there is a specified probability that the value of a parameter lies within it.

The degree to which a measure or set of measures adequately represents all facets of the phenomena it is meant to describe. The circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood. Context has longitudinal historical, diachronic and a cross-sectional concurrent, synchronic aspect.

Context is often crucial for establishing causation. Understanding context, or contextual analysis, is important in evaluation, philanthropy, and social enterprise, and to a lesser degree in economics, in determining whether a particular intervention in a particular point in time and place is likely to be or was successful.

Realist evaluation methods in particular emphasize the role of context. Contexts include social, economic and political structures, organizational context, program participants, program staffing, and geographical and historical context, among other features.

The method of valuation used in cost—benefit analysis and environmental accounting. It is conditional contingent on the construction of hypothetical markets, reflected in expressions of the willingness to pay for potential environmental benefits or for the avoidance of their loss. A randomly selected group that does not receive the services, products or activities of the program being evaluated. The difference between a control group and a comparator group is that the former is randomly selected.

The latter is not. Any action taken by management, the board and other parties to manage risk and increase the likelihood that established objectives and goals will be achieved. Management plans, organizes and directs the performance of sufficient actions to provide reasonable assurance that objectives and goals will be achieved. The power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. Firm owned, controlled, and operated by a group of users for their own benefit.

Each member contributes equity capital, and shares in the control of the firm on the basis of one-member, one-vote principle and not in proportion to his or her equity contribution. The corporate governance framework consists of 1 explicit and implicit contracts between the company and the stakeholders for distribution of responsibilities, rights, and rewards, 2 procedures for reconciling the sometimes conflicting interests of stakeholders in accordance with their duties, privileges, and roles, and 3 procedures for proper supervision, control, and information-flows to serve as a system of checks-and-balances.

The term generally applies to efforts that go beyond what may be required by regulators or environmental protection groups. To talk of a correlation is to express the strength of the relationship between two variables. A correlation is said to be positive if movements between the two variables are in the same direction and negative if it moves in the opposite direction.

A correlation of zero means there is no correlation at all between the two variables. Assignment of indirect costs to a cost object a job or task without arbitrary apportionment. Costs can be allocated where the amount to be assigned can be determined accurately. A method of reaching economic decisions by comparing the costs of doing something with its benefits.

With careful selection of the assumptions used in cost-benefit analysis it can be made to support, or oppose, almost anything. This is particularly so when the decision being contemplated involves some cost or benefit for which there is no market price or which, because of an externality, is not fully reflected in the market price.

Typical examples would be a project to build a hydroelectric dam in an area of outstanding natural beauty or a law to require factories to limit emissions of gases that may cause ill-health. The situation or condition which hypothetically may prevail for individuals, organizations, or groups were there no intervention. It is an estimate of what might have happened without the intervention.

Both might be confused with the adjective. A party that receives or consumes products goods or services and has the ability to choose between different products and suppliers. Information collected by a researcher. Data gathered during an evaluation are manipulated and analyzed to yield findings that serve as the basis for conclusions and recommendations.

A collection of related sets of information that is composed of separate elements but can be manipulated as a unit by a computer. Decay is often used to note that the effects of interventions, especially behaviour interventions, may not last indefinitely, as people or the situation tend to revert back to the pre-intervention state.

Depreciation is an accounting method of allocating the cost of a tangible asset over its useful life. Businesses depreciate long-term assets for both tax and accounting purposes. For tax purposes, businesses can deduct the cost of the tangible assets they purchase as business expenses; however, businesses must depreciate these assets in accordance with IRS rules about how and when the deduction may be taken. Measures of the social cost of DFIs that receive public funds, help to check whether DFIs are good uses of public funds, i.

Development Impact Bonds provide upfront funding for development programs by private investors, who are remunerated by donors or host-country governments—and earn a return—if evidence shows that programs achieve pre-agreed outcomes. An evaluation approach that can assist social innovators develop social change initiatives in complex or uncertain environments. Michael Quinn Patton is careful to describe this approach as one choice that is responsive to context.

This approach is not intended as the solution to every situation. Development evaluation is particularly suited to innovation, radical program re-design, replication, complex issues, crises In these situations, DE can help by: framing concepts, test quick iterations, tracking developments, surfacing issues. The annual percentage rate at which the present value of a future pound, or other unit of account, is assumed to fall away through time.

Also, there are debates about what discount rate for net present value calculations it is appropriate to use when considering the value of natural capital, which may actually increase in the future relative to the present rather than decrease the way the value of currency tends to do, due to inflation. A technique used to compare costs and benefits that occur in different time periods.

It is a separate concept from inflation, and is based on the principle that, generally, people prefer to receive goods and services now rather than later. The degree to which an increase in productive capacity promoted by government policy is offset by reductions in productive capacity elsewhere. Displacement in evaluation, economics, and impact investing, typically refers to the benefits of an intervention, program or policy displacing other benefits. For example, a reduction in crime levels in one local area may lead to an increase in crime in another; in such a case crime may not actually decrease but rather is displaced.

It is an alternative to measuring success by the achievement of absolute goals that tends to be insensitive to progress made that may fall short of the absolute goal. A risk management technique that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio. The rationale behind this technique contends that a portfolio constructed of different kinds of investments will, on average, yield higher returns and pose a lower risk than any individual investment found within the portfolio.

This technique is mostly used in the financial world but applies to business—such diversification of prooducts—and other fields. The simultaneous pursuit of financial and social returns on investment — the ultimate benchmark for a social enterprise or a social sector business. An investigation or audit of a potential investment to confirm all facts, such as reviewing all financial records, plus anything else deemed material.

Due diligence refers to the care a reasonable person should take before entering into an agreement or a financial transaction with another party. The degree to which objectives are achieved and the extent to which targeted problems are solved. The comparison of what is actually produced or performed with what can be achieved with the same consumption of resources money, time, labor, etc.

It is an important factor in determination of productivity. It refers to how inputs are converted to outputs in business and economics or results in evaluation. In economics, allocative efficiency concerns whether resources are optimally allocated to achieve maximum levels of public welfare well-being. Person or organization that actually uses a product, as opposed to the person or organization that authorizes, orders, procures, or pays for it.

Environmental accounting refers to: a national accounting: physical and monetary accounts of environmental assets and the costs of their depletion and degradation; b corporate accounting: the term usually refers to environmental auditing, but may also include the costing of environmental impacts caused by the corporation.

Costs include costs to clean up or remediate contaminated sites, environmental fines, penalties and taxes, purchase of pollution prevention technologies and waste management costs. Environmental criteria looks at how a company performs as a steward of the natural environment. Social criteria examines how a company manages relationships with its employees, suppliers, customers and the communities where it operates.

Investors who want to purchase securities that have been screened for ESG criteria can do so through socially responsible mutual funds and exchange-traded funds. Related: Sustainability, Environmental accounting, Social accounting, Corporate governance, Reporting standard. The value of an asset less the amount of all liabilities on that asset.

The is potential for misunderstanding between the concept of equity as fairness and equity as the net value of an asset. In addition, there is the potential for further confusion because of different variations of the latter definition. The systematic and objective assessment of an ongoing or completed project, program or policy, its design, implementation and results. The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfillment of objectives, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability.

An evaluation should provide information that is credible and useful, enabling the incorporation of lessons learned into the decision-making process of both recipients and donors. Evaluation also refers to the process of determining the worth or significance of an activity, policy or program.

An assessment, as systematic and objective as possible, of a planned, ongoing, or completed intervention. Evaluation in some instances involves the definition of appropriate standards, the examination of performance against those standards, an assessment of actual and expected results and the identification of relevant lessons.

Confusion can arise due to differences in understanding what an evaluation involves. Professional evaluators use the term to describe an assessment, or investigation of a program or intervention using a set of defined practices and principles undertaken by people with relevant skills and experience. Others may understand evaluation as simply making a judgment about something, or as being synonymous with applied research.

The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. A practice that is based on rigorous research that has demonstrated effectiveness in achieving the outcomes that it is designed to achieve. A common definition, created by Dr. It means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research.

In practice, the details of what counts as good evidence in social and environmental policy and practices can be contested. A methodology in which research subjects are randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group, data is collected both before and after the intervention, and results for the treatment group are benchmarked against a counterfactual established by results from the control group.

Periodic or specific purpose ad hoc audit conducted by external independent qualified accountant s. An external audit is often thought to refer to a financial audit, but it can be used for any type of checking processes or standards by an external party, such as an external audit of health and safety, fair trade standards, and environmental practices. The degree to which findings, conclusions, and recommendations produced by an evaluation are applicable to other settings and contexts.

The transmission of findings generated through the evaluation process to parties for whom it is relevant and useful so as to facilitate learning. This may involve the collection and dissemination of findings, conclusions, recommendations and lessons from experience.

The distinction is often made betweeen solicited feedback eg, customer surveys and unsolicited feedback, where customers etc. Investors who prioritize the financial return objective over the social or environmental objectives of an investment. This group tends to include commercial investors seeking investments that offer market-rate returns and also yield social or environmental good. Also included in this group are investors that are required to uphold a fiduciary standard and are therefore unable to make investments that lack the potential to yield market rate returns.

Mathematical representation of key financial and operational relationships. Comprising of one or several sets of equations, it is used in analyzing how a business will react to different economic situations or events, and in estimating the outcome of financial decisions before committing any funds. A financial model generally includes cash flow projections, depreciation schedules, debt service, inventory levels, rate of inflation, etc. A cash budget whether computed by hand or with a spreadsheet program is a basic financial model.

Financial sustainability for a social enterprise is the degree to which it collects sufficient revenues from the sale of its services to cover the full costs of its activities. For charities, it involves achieving adequate and reliable financial resources, normally through a mix of income types.

Factual statements about a project or program which are based on empirical evidence. Findings include statements and visual representations of the data, but not interpretations, judgments or conclusions about what the findings mean or imply. In law, a finding is the verdict or decision of a judge or jury rather than the reporting of objective facts in an evaluation or investigation. The performance fee received by the hedge fund or manager is more than that of the usual industry standard.

Thus the hedge fund managers are in the position to sustain first-loss. If they should suffer a big monthly loss, then they lose their own money quickly while the first-loss capital providers can withdraw their investment to protect their own interests.

A type of investing or budgeting style for which real return rates or periodic income is received at regular intervals and at reasonably predictable levels. Fixed-income investors are typically retired individuals who rely on their investments to provide a regular, stable income stream. This demographic tends to invest heavily in fixed-income investments because of the reliable returns they offer.

Evaluation intended to improve performance, most often conducted during the implementation phase of projects or programs. Formative evaluations may also be conducted for other reasons such as compliance, legal requirements or as part of a larger evaluation initiative.

A fund can be managed by one person, by two people as co-managers, or by a team of three or more people. Actions taken by one general partner are binding upon the other general partners. Also called full partner. A nonprofit organization dedicated to increasing the scale and effectiveness of impact investing around the world.

A project of B Lab that assesses the social and environmental impact but not the financial performance of companies and funds, using a ratings approach analogous to Morningstar investment rankings or rating agency credit risk ratings. A multi-stakeholder process and independent institution whose mission is to develop and disseminate globally applicable Sustainability Reporting Guidelines.

The guidelines were developed so that companies, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations can report on the economic, environmental, and social dimensions of their activities, products and services. Bounty, contribution, gift, or subsidy in cash or kind bestowed by a government or other organization called the grantor for specified purposes to an eligible recipient called the grantee.

Grants are usually conditional upon certain qualifications as to the use, maintenance of specified standards, or a proportional contribution by the grantee or other grantor s. Alternatively referred to as environmental technology or cleantech, this term is used to describe a collection of modern technologies and approaches that maximize human, environmental, and economic benefits.

Specifically, green tech utilizes advancements of modern environmental science, biotechnology and engineering to provide products and services in a way that least degrades natural resources, and in some cases, regenerates them. Common examples of green tech include: materials recycling; utilization of solar, wind and other renewable energy sources for power; biological water treatment and grey water recycling; biofuels; and energy-conserving electronics.

A particular type of investment where an international company begins a new operation in a foreign company by constructing new operational facilities from the ground up. There are many different types of investments of which greenfield investments are only one small category. The new greenfield operation is often a subsidiary of the multinational corporation.

The term is used to refer to new development where none has been before. In some, but not all, cases, it means development in a new country for a given business. Giving a guarantee means making a committment. This is commonly applied to the housing market, where the price of a house can be affected by factors such as scenic views, house appearance, and neighborhood demand. The hedonic pricing model is used to estimate the extent that price and demand can be affected by such factors i.

A classification used by the financial services industry to denote an individual or a family with high net worth. Although there is no precise definition of how rich somebody must be to fit into this category, high net worth is generally quoted in terms of liquid assets over a certain figure. Positive and negative, primary and secondary long-term effects produced by an intervention, directly or indirectly, intended or unintended. A result or effect that is caused by or attributable to a project or program.

Impact is often used to refer to higher level effects of a program that occur in the medium or long term, and can be intended or unintended and positive or negative. In the generic definition, the degree of influence, breadth of effects and timeframe are not specified. Others may use the broader definition, implying broader, longer-term effects that may neither be intended nor measurable. Currently businesses and impact investors that intend to generate positive social or environmental impacts typically do not imply or require the rigorous measurement implied by the narrow definition.

Related: Corporate social responsibility, Social accounting, Environmental accounting, Social audit. There is growing interest in approaches to impact accounting, with a corresponding growth in methods, guidance, and platforms. Nevertheless, the application of impact accounting lags far behind the application of financial accounting which is a much older field. Related: Impact measurement; Social impact measurement; Social impact assessment; Impact evaluation.

The impact chain represents how a social purpose organization achieves its impact by linking the organization to its activities, and the activities to outputs, outcomes and impact. The impact chain forms the central line running through the impact plan. A systematic study of the change that can be attributed to a particular intervention, such as a project, program or policy.

Impact evaluations typically involve the collection of baseline data for both an intervention group and a comparison or control group, as well as a second round of data collection after the intervention, some times even years later. An impact evaluation provides information about the impacts produced by an intervention — positive and negative, intended and unintended, direct and indirect.

The issue of whether an impact evaluation requires a control or comparator group is subject to debate among evaluators. Having a strong focus on attribution favors rigorous typically experimental and quasi-experimental quantitative methods that can be good at assessing causality. But such methods may limit the scope of an impact evaluation to only what can be measured under special conditions; are not always feasible or cost-effective given the complexity of the real world; and may, if experimental, raise ethical and sometimes legal concerns.

See Broadening the range of designs and methods for impact evaluation by Stern et. Impact first investors targeting social or environmental good as their primary objective, above achieving a financial return. Related: Finance first investor, Impact first investor, Impact investing, Impact investor. There is no common, clearly defined point at which an investment approach shifts from impact first to finance first or vice versa.

Impact investing is investing that aims to generate specific beneficial social or environmental effects in addition to financial gain. Impact investing is a subset of socially responsible investing SRI , but while the definition of socially responsible investing encompasses avoidance of harm, impact investing actively seeks to make a positive impact by investing, for example, in non-profits that benefit the community or in clean technology enterprises.

Investments made into companies, organizations, and funds with the intention to generate social and environmental impact alongside a financial return. Impact investments can be made in both emerging and developed markets, and target a range of returns from below market to market rate and premium returns. The latter implies verification as an essential part of the process.

Though there is no clear dividing line between impact investing and venture philanthropy, generally the priorities and practices of impact investing are closer to mainstream investing while the priorities and practices of venture philanthopy are closer to philanthropy.

Impact investors are individuals, companies, and funds who make investments into other companies, organizations, and funds with the intention of generating social and environmental impact alongside financial returns. The Impact Management Project describes impact managment as learning about—and improving—effects experienced by people and the planet. A table that captures how an activity makes a difference: that is, how it uses its resources to provide activities that then lead to particular outcomes for different stakeholders.

An impact map is a visualization of scope and underlying assumptions, created collaboratively by senior technical and business people. It is a mind-map grown during a discussion facilitated by answering the following four questions: why? They are sometimes preferred over more linear causal models such as logic models, results chains, and logframes. The concept of impact maps was introduced by Dr. Robert O. Brinkerhoff as a tool to ensure that training was focused on the most organizational-critical skills and knowledge.

Since then its use has been adapted. One important difference in types is whether they focus on the recipient of the impact or the creator of the impact. Measuring and managing the process of creating social and environmental impact in order to maximize and optimize it.

Related: Impact management, Impact assessment, Social impact assessment, Social impact measurement. The Impact Reporting and Investment Standards IRIS provide a common reporting language to describe social and environmental performance and ensure uniform measurement and articulation of impact across portfolios. The IRIS initiative defines terms to enable consistent reporting and allows benchmarking of data across companies, funds, investment portfolios and other organizations by serving as a repository for aggregated IRIS-compliant data.

IRIS is a catalog of measures for investors and providers to use, rather than standards of measurement and reporting to follow, such as the International Financial Reporting Standards. IRIS also provides links to impact measurement guides. It is extremely unlikely that an intervention will have exactly the planned or expected impact. Impact risk is higher when: i small actions can have disproportionate impacts; ii there is uncertainty as to the key influences of impact; iii the intervention changes as it is implemented; iv there is volatility and turmoil in the operating environment; v there are changes in the intervention design or in the authorizing environment; vi the operating environment changes in response to the intervention.

An impact thesis explains how activities and funding are expected to generate results likely to contribute to intended impacts. A logic model used for impact investing, first described in by the Double Bottom Line Project Report: assessing social impact in double bottom line ventures. A term of art referring to relatively unconscious and relatively automatic features of prejudiced judgment and social behavior.

For example, imagine Frank, who explicitly believes that women and men are equally suited for careers outside the home. Despite his explicitly egalitarian belief, Frank might nevertheless implicitly associate women with the home, and this implicit association might lead him to behave in any number of biased ways, from trusting feedback from female co-workers less to hiring equally qualified men over women. Psychological research on implicit bias is relatively recent, but a host of metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical questions about implicit bias are pressing.

The flow of money to the factors of production: wages to labor; profit to enterprise and capital; interest also to capital; rent to land. Wages left for spending after paying taxes is known as disposable income. An evaluation carried out by entities and persons free of the control of those responsible for the design and implementation of the intervention. The credibility of an evaluation depends in part on how independently it has been carried out. Independence implies freedom from political influence and organizational pressure.

It is characterized by full access to information and by full autonomy in carrying out investigations and reporting findings. Related: External audit, External evaluation, Internal evaluation, Self-evaluation. The rationale for independence is to provide for, and to protect, the impartiality of evaluations and to ensure that the ability of the evaluators to provide credible reports and advice is not compromised.

The independence of an evaluation function requires: i structural independence: the evaluation is sufficiently removed from political pressures to report findings without fear of repercussions; ii behavioral Independence: evaluators are able and willing to issue strong, high quality, and uncompromising reports; iii protection from outside interference: the evaluation is not subject to overruling or external influence; and iv avoidance of conflicts of interest: there are no official, professional, personal or financial relationships that might cause evaluators to limit the extent of an inquiry, limit disclosure, or weaken or slant findings.

Quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that provides a simple and reliable means to measure achievement, to reflect the changes connected to an intervention, or to help assess the performance of an actor. Measurable variable used as a representation of an associated but non-measured or non-measurable factor or quantity.

Indicators are statistics used to measure current conditions as well as to forecast financial or economic trends. Technical indicators are used extensively in technical analysis to predict changes in stock trends or price patterns in any traded asset.

A statistic used for judging the health of an economy, such as GDP per head, the rate of unemployment or the rate of inflation. In evaluation, an indicator is a variable that allows verification of changes in the intervention or shows results relative to what was planned. In business, it is a measure of how effectively a company is achieving its objectives. In economics, it is a piece of data used to judge the health of an economy.

In finance, it is a tool used to predict market changes. Hence, it is always useful to check what these terms mean in specific contexts. This is a specific version of the generic definition. The creation or reinforcement of a network of organizations to effectively generate, allocate and use human, material and financial resources to attain specific objectives on a sustainable basis.

Related terms include institutional strengthening, institutional capacity building, and organizational development. A nonbank person or organization that trades securities in large enough share quantities or dollar amounts that it qualifies for preferential treatment and lower commissions. Institutional investors face fewer protective regulations because it is assumed they are more knowledgeable and better able to protect themselves.

Examples of institutional investors include pension funds and life insurance companies. IR is a process founded on integrated thinking that results in a periodic integrated report by an organization about value creation over time and related communications regarding aspects of value creation. What it costs to borrow money and what is earned from lending it or putting it on deposit.

Interest is normally expressed in annual terms and as a percentage of the amount borrowed, lent or deposited the interest rate. The term interest also means a share of ownership. An entity that acts as the middleman between two parties in a financial transaction, such as a commercial bank, investment banks, mutual funds and pension funds.

Financial intermediaries offer a number of benefits to the average consumer, including safety, liquidity, and economies of scale involved in commercial banking, investment banking and asset management. The degree to which conclusions about causal linkages are appropriately supported by the evidence collected. The International Integrated Reporting Council IIRC — which describes itself as a global coalition of regulators, investors, companies, standard setters, the accounting profession and NGOs — seeks to raise awareness and encourage companies to include non-financial information in their regular reports.

The IIRC aims to improve the quality of information available to investors to enable a more efficient and productive allocation of capital. It aims to enhance accountability and promote good stewardship. An action or entity that is introduced into a system to achieve some result. In the program evaluation context, an intervention refers to an activity, project or program that is introduced or changed amended, expanded, etc. A company or entity in which an investor makes a direct investment.

More commonly used in the venture capital vernacular to describe a company in which a controlling interest is held by a venture capitalist firm. Investments made to an investee could be in the form of either a loan, an equity investment, or a hybrid of the two. The use of money to make more money. For indirect investments, investors can place money in different types of investments asset classes where the investor tyically trades-off different levels of return for different levels of risk.

For some investors ie, impact investors lower financial returns might also be acceptable if the creation of social returns can be demonstrated. The beliefs that investors decide to use when determining what investments to purchase or sell, when to take an action and why. An investment thesis helps investors establish goals for their investments, and measures whether they have been achieved, either in written form or simply as an idea.

A sound investment thesis can be a foundation for a profitable portfolio. On the other hand, an incorrect investment thesis can result in sub-par returns or losses. Any person or organization who commits capital with the expectation of financial returns. As well as seeking to minimize risk while maximizing financial returns, investors may choose to pursue investment opportunities that provide social and environmental returns. Joint evaluations can help overcome attribution problems in assessing the effectiveness of programs and strategies, the complementarity of efforts supported by different partners, the quality of aid coordination, etc.

Key performance indicators KPI are a set of quantifiable measures that a company uses to gauge its performance over time. Also called nominal partner. A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets including both material and social resources and activities required for a means of living. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stress and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base.

The program logic model is defined as a picture of how your organization does its work — the theory and assumptions underlying the program. A basic logic model links inputs, activities or processes, outputs, and outcomes short-term and long-term. There are many variations of logic models and formats to present them.

Management tool used to improve the design of interventions, most often at the project level. It involves identifying strategic elements inputs, outputs, outcomes, impact and their causal relationships, indicators, and the assumptions or risks that may influence success and failure.

It thus facilitates planning, execution and evaluation- of a development intervention. Logical frameworks logframes share much in common with logic models, impact maps and theories of change and these are often used as synonyms. Logical frameworks tend to be tables rather than graphics and are typically based on a simple linear logic of a results chain.

Theories of change allow for more complex causal pathways. Where buyers and sellers of goods or services carry out transactions, sometimes through an intermediary. Also, the whole group of potential buyers for a good or service.

Related: Market risk-adjusted rate of return, commercially constructive, below-market, below-market risk-adjusted rate investment. The term is used to differentiate an investment that expects to receive an average or typical financial rate of return for a given level of risk i. Magnitude of an omission or misstatements of accounting information that, in the light of surrounding circumstances, makes it probable that the judgment of a reasonable person relying on the information would change or be influenced.

All defintions tend to be conceptually aligned in that material information is any information which is capable of making a difference to the evaluation and analysis at hand. Assessing what is material is a professional judgment. For example, the merit of researchers lies in their skill and originality, whereas their worth to the institution that employs them might include the income they generate through grants, fame, or bequests, attracting other good faculty and students.

As a legal term. The term is used for evaluations designed to aggregate findings from a series of evaluations. Standards of measurement by which efficiency, performance, progress, or quality of a plan, process, or product can be assessed. Parameters or measures of quantitative assessment used for measurement, comparison or to track performance or production. Analysts use metrics to compare the performance of different companies, despite the many variations between firms.

A type of banking service that is provided to unemployed or low-income individuals, or groups who otherwise have no other access to financial services. Ultimately, the goal of microfinance is to give low-income people an opportunity to become self-sufficient by providing a way to save money, borrow money and get insurance. Financial services targeting low-and-moderate income businesses or households that are underserved by traditional financial institutions.

Microfinance services include credit, savings, insurance and remittances. The UN is also working with governments, civil society and other partners to build on the momentum generated by the MDGs and carry on with an ambitious post development agenda. Unlike Program Related Investments, Mission Related Investments are not statutorily prescribed and there is no agreed definition. The jeopardizing investment rules and other legal requirements, such as state prudent investor rules, do apply to MRIs.

Some people use MRI to indicate strictly market-rate investments designed to achieve a social impact. To monetize is to convert an asset or any object into money or legal tender. Governments monetize debt to keep interest rates on borrowed money low and to avoid financial crisis, while businesses monetize products and services to generate profit.

This is often done to give a relative sense of importance in a business context to something of social value. The performance and analysis of routine measurements to detect changes in status. Monitoring is used to inform managers about the progress of an ongoing intervention or program, and to detect problems that may be able to be addressed through corrective actions.

A continuing function that uses systematic collection of data on specified indicators to provide management and the main stakeholders of an ongoing development intervention with indications of the extent of progress and achievement of objectives and progress in the use of allocated funds.

This project was the first socially responsible world tour and was the catalyst for a wave of socially engaged travel. This was measured in how well school's prepared students for ethical and socially responsible leadership. Specifically, establish partnerships with government to strengthen policies that support higher educations civic and socially responsible efforts.

This results in a lack of time for the owner to coordinate socially responsible efforts. Corporate codes of conduct are adopted when various organizations join together in agreement to operate under a set of socially responsible labor rules. This includes socially responsible operator, sports betting operator, mobile casino product etc. In order to act ethically and in a socially responsible manner, catalogers should be aware of how their judgments benefit or harm findability.

Shareholders and investors themselves, through socially responsible investing are exerting pressure on corporations to behave responsibly. These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors.

What is the pronunciation of socially responsible? Browse socialized. Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications. Test your vocabulary with our fun image quizzes. Image credits. Word of the Day jam. It is eaten on bread About this. Blog A whale of a time: talking about enjoying yourself June 15, Read More.

New Words dark academia. June 20, To top. Business Examples. Sign up for free and get access to exclusive content:. Free word lists and quizzes from Cambridge. Tools to create your own word lists and quizzes. Word lists shared by our community of dictionary fans. Sign up now or Log in. Dictionary Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Essential British English. Essential American English. Translations Click on the arrows to change the translation direction.

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