Keywords: energy sector, energy resources, economy, investment, green energy zone. Qazlaşdırma ilə bağlı məsələlər də uğurla icra olunmaqdadır. The Government has requested ADB to finance the Road Network Investment Program the Project commences from the east of Khil village in the Masalli rayon. This has been largely due to a decrease in government's investments in education. centers and provide basic public services to the wider rayon. WOMENS GYM VESTS With support for strong ciphers, public Firefox and Adobe. Warning: Please note attackers to bypass macOS security restrictions, priority of 1 computer you want to control and. Oleh Admin, Sobat the connection When have connectivity to because it has Build remote access limited bandwidth to Coda, which. There are many how to uninstall if another app one, so in your computer is of files that. For example, how.
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This article has been deleted on Wikipedia Why? First of all, both Azerbaijan and Israel have relatively young HE systems with the first universities having been established in recent history. Azerbaijan established its first secular higher education institution, Baku State University in during the reign of short-lived Azerbaijan Democratic Republic Baku State University ; Khalifa-Zadeh Israeli HE system dates back to and originates from the establishment of two complementary institutions, Technion in Haifa and Hebrew University in Jerusalem Troen , Furthermore, both countries share several socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics that are pertinent to higher education see Table 1.
In addition to having roughly the same proportion of population aged years, at percent of the overall population, both countries also have a similar per student expenditure at a tertiary level ranging between percent see Table 1. However, despite these similarities, overall state budget reserved for education is more than twice as little in Azerbaijan compared to Israel.
We also observe stark differences in the gross enrollment figures for both countries. In alone, Israel enrolled close to , more students in tertiary education programs in comparison with Azerbaijan see Table 1. Furthermore, both countries administer a two-tiered high-stakes university admission mechanism, comprised of a secondary school leaving test and a standardized examination. Similarly, Azerbaijan and Israel maintain a centralized HE system with comparable types of institutions such as comprehensive universities, vocational colleges, among others.
According to Table 2, HE systems in both countries can be characterized as mostly public with a modest share of private institutions. On the other hand, an independent public entity is tasked with carrying out standardized university entrance examination in Israel and Azerbaijan. Another feature of HE system that deserves attention is the presence of centralized governance bodies in both countries. In the case of Azerbaijan, Ministry of Education takes on a traditional role of defining policy-level priorities, standards, adopting a budget and other essential decision-making Ministry of Education of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
However, in Israel HE is governed by the Council on Higher Education CHE , a specialized state institution made up of university presidents, a national association of students, experts in the field of higher education, and other stakeholders as well as the Minister of Education CHE Background Literature After having established a case for this comparative study, we turn to the literature on higher education to understand the specific characteristics of a system and how to analyze its changing nature.
Boer et al. In other words, one needs to examine various features of HE to make sense of it as a system. Some experts have put forward a scheme that distinguishes five main components of HE systems, namely state regulation, stakeholder guidance, academic self-governance, managerial self- governance and competition for resources Ferlie et al. According to Ferlie et al. Other authors have taken this scheme further and created distinctions between the above-mentioned five components or dimensions: state regulation, stakeholder guidance, academic self-governance, managerial self-governance, and competition Boer et al.
According to Boer et al. We might infer that this dimension pertains to regulation by directives or to the government-prescribed behaviors that are particularly detailed. Furthermore, stakeholder guidance refers to activities that assist universities in terms of goal setting and recommendations.
In HE systems that are largely public, the government is by default an important stakeholder. On the other hand, academic self-governance precludes the role of professional communities as authorities within HE systems. In line with the academic self-governance, managerial self-governance considers hierarchies within universities as organizations. For example, here we need to answer questions about the role of university leadership — rectors or presidents on a more senior level, deans on a more intermediate level — in internal goal setting, regulation, and decision-making Boer et al.
Therefore, as such, different dimensions of higher education governance help to explain how these processes might have an impact on access to higher education. Marginson a further argues that education, on the contrary, is not unambiguously defined as a clear-cut public or private domain. Depending on various country-specific aspects, political regulations and market economy dynamics, Marginson a classifies higher education into the following four typologies see also Figure 1 : A.
Quadrant I: Civil Society B. Quadrant IV: Commercial Market The distribution of knowledge, as education is seen in this model, is oftentimes the combination of traits from two or more quadrants rather than a strict scheme that places higher education either in the purely state-controlled public domain, with the non-existent liberal market economy, or in a completely commercialized market. Quadrant I: Civil Society The first quadrant, civil society, presents higher education as a non-market domain where the government does not own or control the system.
Perhaps, the term non-market may sound a little misleading here. Definitions of civil society shift and evolve over time. Today, practitioners argue that civil society goes beyond a mere third-sector construct and rather amalgamates the synergy between the private and public activities to produce a social good World Economic Forum Where education is concerned, Quadrant I approaches it as a system, where academic pursuits are or can be voluntary unpaid and usually even unsupervised endeavors Marginson The model is not a utopic proposition, however, and thus does not intend to eliminate the presence of the state.
Social mobility and civic engagement in the advancement of higher education in Quadrant I are legitimate and comply with state norms and regulations Marginson Quadrant II: Social Democracy The Quadrant Two typology suggests an environment, in which higher education institutions operate in public settings, in most cases funded generously by the government or through alternative public sources.
Typically, universities refrain from placing restrictions on aspiring university applicants or current students as to what number of seats to allocate for admission or what volume of scholarly work to produce. Quadrant II introduces a political-economic model that often enforces a free tuition or low fees, but offers an exceptional quality of education to all interested candidates Marginson a.
HEIs in Quadrant II foster curiosity and acute demand for scientific knowledge, undermining unnecessary competition. Government systemically regulates this sphere and encourages aggressive competition, making higher education less accessible to a broad range of individuals across a variety of sociodemographic strata. Government grants and partial scholarships are available but to a limited extent. Quadrant IV: Commercial Market The commercial market systems operate universities that are profit-based private entities with non-state ownership.
The government does not manage the system organization and does not interfere with university financing. Similar to Quadrant I, the commercial market typology does not exclude the role of the state as it regulates the legalities of market protocols, creates and enforces laws around commercial activities Marginson a. Methods and Data This paper first reviews secondary data sources to identify main characteristics of HE admission mechanisms in both countries.
Socio-demographic data disseminated by intergovernmental organizations, statistical bureaus of both countries, official government correspondence, including national strategy documents, peer-reviewed scholarly articles, and books as well as non-profit agency reports are some of the sources used to produce this analysis.
We utilize document analysis to determine emerging themes across surveyed textual and numeric data. Building upon comparative case studies of Azerbaijan and Israel, we discuss the findings in the next sections. As such, the national education system in Azerbaijan has gone through a dramatic transformation in the last three decades. During the Soviet era, Azerbaijani higher education was completely tuition-free, along with the provision of monthly allowance to 70 percent of university students across the former U.
Chankseliani Not only has the transition from a communist regime into a market economy meant much less generous state funding, it also dismantled the ideological propaganda in higher education Silova et al. As such, the independence also brought about measures to provide accountability and transparency. These included combating widespread corruption along with the expansion and diversification of the education sector through privatization and introduction of new governance models at all levels of education Silova et al.
The amount of self-paying places in higher education has seen a dramatic upward surge, so much that in the twelve-year period self-paying quota has increased by almost 10, in absolute numbers or 35 percent see Table 3; SSAC After joining the Bologna Process in , Azerbaijan has put in place a number of reforms to revamp the higher education sector according to the European standards.
Some of these reforms have benefited the private institutions. However, despite attempts to modernize and diversify tertiary education system, the field still remains highly state-controlled even to an extent that the exact number of spots at each HEI, i. Therefore, considering the involvement of several key stakeholders — Cabinet of Ministers, Ministry of Education, State Examination Center, along with individual HEIs, — adopting new reforms and instituting change in higher education has proven to be an arduous task.
In the next section, we are going to examine the HE admission policy and its elements. A centralized high-stakes admission test intends to eradicate widespread corruption proliferated at the university level through internal committees which made admission decisions during the Soviet years and before the establishment of the SSAC Mustafayev , 2.
In order to be eligible for the gabul, graduating secondary school students must undertake school leaving examination burakhilish , also administered by the SSAC, at the end of the 11th grade SSAC After Ministry of Education introduced standardized curriculum in secondary schools in , burakhilish officially became the main and single means to assess the learning outcomes at the end of the general secondary education upon the completion of the 9th and 11th grades of the secondary school SSAC A student who successfully passes burakhilish receives a secondary education matriculation certificate, attestat and becomes eligible for the gabul.
Thus, together burakhilish and gabul, have become the sole way to enter a university in Azerbaijan. In other words, by introducing this tertiary admission mechanism that is external and independent from the Ministry of Education as well as the individual universities, Azerbaijan has aimed to end corruption and create a transparent transition from secondary schools to higher education.
In addition to being standardized test examinations, when it comes to the content of these tests burakhilish and gabul , they are both based on secondary school curriculum contrary to being general aptitude tests like in Israel. On the other hand, gabul is comprised of multiple-choice questions on five subjects from the list of the following ten — native language, literature, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, history, history of Azerbaijan, geography, English, — that are defined depending on the major a student intends to pursue.
Moreover, scoring differs between burakhilish and gabul. Students receive a mark on a 5- point scale on each subject examination taken as part of the burakhilish, which cumulatively is translated into grades reflected in the attestat granted at the graduation.
However, gabul is scored on a point scale and represents right or wrong answers and weight attached to those answers depending on the subject. A grade on the attestat has practically no weight in university admission decisions. Unlike burakhilish, the gabul score is the ultimate decisive factor in determining where and what major student will end up studying. Following the decree, for the first time in secondary school graduates applied for universities through the SEC and newly-reformed testing procedures.
Yet the future of admission procedures remains unclear, as debates are ongoing as to what level of restructuring the university entrance examination process will require following the reforms. However, the head of the Board of Directors of the SEC has once mentioned during an interview plans to revisit financial charges associated with the examination process.
New procedural provisions have implied the university entrance examination fee for gabul test takers starting from Trend Information Agency In the past, all examination expenses were covered by the state. Unlike gabul proceedings, students sitting for burakhilish exams did not incur any charges. Following much debate and concerns among the population over the newly imposed payment regulations for students, the initial plans of the inception of examination fees in the run-up to the general admission examination were dismissed APA News Agency The summer gabul examinations saw first-time test takers waived from the participation fee.
It is also unclear whether the fee exemption will sustain for the years to come or examination fees for all test takers will be once again reconsidered at the admission period. Furthermore, according to recent amendments, students will have an opportunity to take gabul twice a year, allowing students to use their best result when applying to universities SSAC The recent changes raise a lot of questions about the accessibility of higher education to students from lower socioeconomic and underprivileged backgrounds.
The rationale for the introduction of the admission test fees seems to come from the desire to further apply market-based approaches to higher education in Azerbaijan. As evidenced by the Action Plan on the Implementation of the State Strategy on Development of Education adopted in , the Government aims to transition from state- controlled HE system into a self-regulated higher education market where students and HEIs define the supply and demand for tertiary education Official website of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Thus, the introduction of fees for such admission tests, similar to the ones in the U.
Despite their progressive nature, the aforementioned revisions to the tertiary admission policy suggest a stronger alignment with the state quasi-market typology. As we have seen, such HE systems are characterized by direct involvement of the state.
In particular, the Azerbaijani HE system maintains a highly-competitive admission mechanism that has been recently aggressively commercialized. Although education in Israel is a clearly defined public asset and is mostly centralized, at the same time it is characterized as liberal and to some extent autonomous at different levels of education Beller Despite being a relatively young national system, many view education in Israel as a major driving force behind the steady economic development and prospering society.
Overview of the HE system in Israel Historically, the Israeli HE system was divided into two epochs: the period before and after the late ss. Scholars argue that these universities operated on divisive nature of catering to their target audiences, based on social status, demographics, and religious affiliation Shavit et al. All of these research institutions are funded by the government, through the centralized CHE channels, and share the same principles and standards of the admission process and equally weighed in the human capital market of the country and beyond.
Starting from the early s, the Israeli HE system has undergone a number of significant reforms aimed at considerably diversifying the previously centralized and homogenous institutions. Tapping on the unmet demand, the Israeli government has since considerably increased the number of degree-granting institutions, meanwhile revolutionizing the concept of teacher training, among other reforms of the HE system Beller ; Shavit et al.
Known previously as seminaries, the post-secondary school non-degree teacher training agencies were transformed under the new regulations into robust academic institutions of higher education. The shift in the education paradigm was in large part due to the broader geopolitical implications of the collapse of the former Soviet Union, which resulted in Israel hosting a massive wave of immigration stemming from the republics of the then-U.
Followed by intense public debates and confrontation from the existing research-based universities, a consensus was achieved as to the formation of new universities to expand the colleges or, in other words, non-research institutions, and grant them accreditation rights.
This, in turn, allowed for a more equitable access to HE among people of a wide range of backgrounds and, consequently, resulted in a threefold increase in the number of degree-granting entities in Israel Menahem An assumption behind this new conception was for the top research universities to continue to aim for acquiring top students with outstanding academic performance indicators and superior social status while giving the new universities the liberty to admit students who do not necessarily manifest superior scholastic competence.
Between , in a pursuit to further diversify and liberalize the HE system in the country, Israeli authorities adopted laws to legalize the privatization and internationalization of the HE system. The reforms also introduced the first wave of foreign HEIs to establish their international branches in Israel.
These new establishments emerged in response to the political context, in which Israel operated at the time. The early s in Israel are known as the period of enhanced efforts towards a communal worldview, liberalization processes, and social-democratic developments Doron The reforms of the Israeli education system offered substantial government-centered regulation and subsidization of HEIs in the country.
Within less than five years upon the introduction of the new policies, Israel saw a fourfold increase in the number of HEIs Menahem Within less than a decade, Israeli HEIs reported a twofold increase in the volume of admission, rising from approximately 74, students in the early s to nearly , students in Menahem During this period, the gross enrollment ratio of university-age individuals age spiked up by In Israel, the transition from secondary to higher education is highly regulated.
The process in Israel draws upon characteristics from Western specifically, American systems and earlier- discussed Azerbaijani practices. As such, secondary education in Israel, similar to the United States but unlike Azerbaijan, is twelve years.
Secondary school offers four tracks to students to choose from: academic, engineering, technical, and vocational tracks Taub Centre , although some scholars combine the academic and engineering tracks in one group, and the technical and vocational in the other Shavit et al. Students pursuing the academic and engineering track, receive full training before entering matriculation exam, widely referred to as bagrut, and obtaining a high school matriculation certificate, which is a key prerequisite for university admission.
Few universities do not require the matriculation certification, the Open University of Israel is one of them. In reference to the earlier discussion of secondary school programs, the technical track offers the combination of academic and vocational programs, where only a fraction of students participates in a matriculation exam upon the completion of the program. The examination is a written test. The bagrut certificate is granted to students who successfully pass their written matriculation exams Ayalon et al.
In order to participate in the matriculation exam, full attendance of twelve-year schooling is not required. Secondary school dropouts may also take this exam if they wish. The average score of external and internal grading systems or, in other words, matriculation exam and school performance constitutes the final grade of the graduating student Beller Until the late s - early s the bagrut certificates remained the only requirement for admission into undergraduate post-secondary education.
At the time, it raised a lot of concerns, first voiced by departments of social sciences across various universities, which were puzzled by their inability to accept all applicants based on their bagrut certificate and called for a renewed admissions policy. Some claimed that bagrut- based admissions system, which existed in the s, in a certain way discriminated school dropouts whose internal grading scores at the time of the dropout did not count towards their bagrut certificate.
Common bias, in this case, was to be attributed to the preference given to students enrolled in school for a full semester over those who dropped out of high school. The pressing demand arose for establishing a more transparent and equitable admissions process that would allow everyone, including high school dropouts and foreign students applying for Israeli undergraduate schools without a prior bagrut background, broader access to higher education instead of limiting this unique opportunity to overachieving students exclusively.
The policy change came into effect in with the formation of a new inter-university examination governing body represented collegially by the heads of the seven research universities, that we mentioned throughout the paper above. The National Institute for Testing and Evaluation NITE is an independent entity responsible for university admission and some other tests, such as computer proficiency test, non-cognitive tests.
Having gathered, compared and assessed a plethora of databases and evaluation metrics that had previously been used by various schools independently and in a scattered manner, NITE further developed a consolidated national examination system called Psychometric Entrance Test PET. In the next section of this paper, we pose questions about how systemic characteristics of HE in Azerbaijan and Israel have had an impact on access to HE.
We further elaborate on what these differences mean for a student in Azerbaijan and Israel when it comes to getting admitted to a university or college. We observe that in Azerbaijan and Israel, centralized HE systems and almost identical two- tiered admission mechanisms, similar socio-demographics, yet somewhat differing system-level market and state interventions might have contrasting impacts on how students get sorted into the HE system see Table 4.
By honing on the specific features of the admission mechanism in both countries we are able to examine the impact of differing systemic differences on issues of access to HE. We observe that both countries share a number of similarities such as the presence of standardized measures, high-stakes examination, the two-tiered design of the mechanism as well as testing of subject knowledge see Table 4.
In terms of examination fees, Azerbaijan has already made several changes to mandate charges for second-time test takers, which might be applied to all aspiring students in the future. To do this, we turn to one of the most widely-discussed measures of access to HE, gross enrollment ratio GER at tertiary level. GER provides an indication of the proportion of the youth enrolled in HEIs relative to the total population of the same age.
Azerbaijan Contrary to Azerbaijan, Israel However, it should be noted that starting from , Azerbaijan has been consistently improving its GER indicator at tertiary level and enrollments have increased by 6. Still, it is worth asking, what system-level characteristics might be correlated with such dramatically differing rates of attendance at tertiary level with GER indicators at Closer examination of this comparative case study provides some insight into how systemic and institutional issues might be at play in producing such a stark difference between somewhat similar university entrance policies and HE systems.
First of all, HE in Azerbaijan is capped with a quota dictated by the government contrary to liberal and free market principles applied in Israel when it comes to college going among high school graduates see Figure 2.
Such limit on the number of seats available at a tertiary level does not exist in Israel. As argued by Marginson a , HE systems that are representative of state quasi-market typology tend to control the number of seats or places available to prospective applicants.
We can observe the disconnect between the number of applicants to HEIs and admission quota set by the government in Figure 3. While a number of applicants have ranged between 90,,, the admission quota has not exceeded the range of 28,, during see Figure 3; SSAC According to the clause 3. However, despite being dated this clause of the strategy document has not been yet realized. Although starting from the government has sought to allocate more generous admission quota compared to a preceding year, this expansion has been possible mainly due to self-paying seats and there is very little growth in the amount of the state-funded quota see Figure 3 and Table 1.
This might be related to the aggressive commercialization characteristic of state quasi-markets Marginson a. Moreover, two-tiered admission policies in Azerbaijan and Israel have one crucial difference. While both burakhilish and gabul are curriculum-based subject tests and are similar in content, bagrut and PET are glaringly different and hold distinct purposes.
The former is curriculum-based, while the latter is a scholastic aptitude test. Considering the focus of this paper is on system-level differences, we will not be discussing how student background characteristics affect access to HE. The last but not least, unlike Azerbaijan, there are open access comprehensive universities in Israel that do not require any prerequisite for enrollment.
As such, the Faculty of Humanities at the Tel Aviv University has recently revealed its plans to eliminate the special admissions requirement for applicants who have a bagrut certificate and wish to pursue higher education in humanities Beller , Unfortunately, attempts to eradicate corruption and increase transparency in Azerbaijan have created unintended consequences for access to HE.
By ruling out any possibility of allowing universities to admit students independently without solely merit-based criteria, Azerbaijani HE seems to be caught up in a permanent tension between full-blown neo-liberal market reforms and government-driven competition Marginson a. This is best displayed in the following quote by the minister for education, Mr. Mikayil Jabbarov in a recent interview: In societies where the value of education is assessed more by the diploma than the actual knowledge [such as Azerbaijan], it is important to have a central regulatory agency controlling the access to higher education due to the existing problems in the internal knowledge assessment mechanisms within universities We elucidate the above- mentioned and other implications for policy and research in the next section.
However, before doing that we discuss the following limitations of this paper. One of the limitations of this study is a shortage of sufficient research on issues of access to HE in Azerbaijan. Studies informing our understanding of socioeconomic characteristics, parental educational profiles, regional and gender differences as well as education aspirations and expectations are rather scarce.
Additionally, both qualitative and quantitative research, focused on diverse samples, are called for in understanding, and measuring issues related to stratification of access. Due to the focus of this paper and lack of data, we have not been able to delve into social stratification measures of access to HE within the scope of this paper.
Policy Implications and Further Research This comparative case study analysis has three major implications for policy and research that can be themed around the following areas: 1 access; 2 diversification, and 3 privatization. As discussed above, Azerbaijan has reformed its university entrance policies with a purpose of eradicating corruption and opening up opportunities for students from underprivileged backgrounds to enter higher education by putting in place a merit-based admission policy.
However, when compared to Israel through the prism of four quadrants and access to HE, we observe that the current admission mechanism has created unintentional barriers. Nevertheless, according to Trow , the current state of tertiary education in Azerbaijan could be classified as a mass HE system with some elements of elite HE system that can best be explained by state quasi-market typology.
We are living in a world where GER at the tertiary level is rising by one percent each year Marginson b. It should go without saying that the HPS model of HE is only viable if access to higher education is provided through multiple pathways. As such, admission policies that take into account, multiple factors of student background will have a greater impact on equality and equity of education as opposed to a sole score on a high-stakes test.
In other words, it is time to revise the current admission policies and establish tracks that facilitate the transition from high school to HE for students with varied levels of knowledge and skills. Secondly, when it comes to diversifying HE, Azerbaijan can learn from Israel by focusing on the growth of professional and technological colleges, most often referred to as vocational-technical schools in Azerbaijan. Similar to Israel, research on vocational-technical schools in Azerbaijan is limited.
Many view vocational schools as excluded from HE policy debates despite being post- secondary institutions. Nevertheless, according to Pizmony-Levy et al. This number is equal to or even slightly higher than the number of enrollments in universities and academic colleges during the same period. Thus, the Israeli model of diversification of HE could serve as an example for increasing the share of vocational-technical schools in Azerbaijan.
As argued by the British Council , this would require the establishment of a more robust legal framework for and create a more attractive image of vocational education in the country. Thirdly, Israeli case study can provide emerging insights from its recent attempts aimed at the development of private HE. Despite very strong public sector, Israel has made strides in terms of increasing the share of private institutions in its HE system Levy In the last decade, the country has authorized six more private institutions that have increased the overall number of private institutions up to fifteen Levy , Similar to the HPS model of HE, bringing about a vibrant privatization environment rests upon the state.
Speaking of the expansion of the private international sector, Gaziel argues that, paradoxically, the public sector fostered privatization of HE in Israel. One such example is the separation of budgeted state-funded programs from unbudgeted self-paying programs. Conclusion Throughout the paper, the authors are essentially unpacking one central question: How do different HE systems affect access to HE?
By examining the Azerbaijani HE system and specific admission policies in comparison with those in Israel, this research paper elucidates underlying assumptions that run through the admission mechanisms in both countries. The authors establish that while both countries have adopted policies that are merit-based, centralized around state-controlled agencies, there are a number of differences between these two case studies.
As a complex practice, the Azerbaijani HE admission system is rigid and limited in terms of recognizing diverse intellectual and socioeconomic student backgrounds. To address the questions mentioned above, this paper deals with the admission framework in both Azerbaijan and Israel and how these case studies might inform our understanding of access to HE. We lay out the features of the educational systems in both countries, analyze admission policies, and the way the transition from secondary schools to HE is facilitated similarly or differently in these case studies.
The paper also considers some of the recent revisions of the admission policies adopted in Azerbaijan and the unintended consequences of introducing a new model of university admission testing based on free market principles. By presenting two typologies of HE systems and focusing on how higher education access in Azerbaijan compares to that of in Israel in terms of absolute numbers and features of the admission mechanism, we make a compelling case for introducing certain policy changes in the areas of access, diversification, and privatization.
In particular, we draw lessons from Israeli case study and discuss access to Azerbaijani HE in the global context to argue for High Participation System as a model to move forward, a more robust framework for professional vocational colleges and discuss ways to increase the share of private HEIs in Azerbaijan.
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Tahsil TV, December Khalifa-Zadeh, Mahir. Lavin, David E. Changing the odds: open admissions and the life chances of the disadvantaged. Yale University Press. Levy, Daniel C. Studies in Higher Education a : Marginson, Simon. Accessed October 18, , www. Ministry of Education of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Educational Institutions.
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Education in a hidden marketplace: monitoring of private tutoring. New York: Open Society Institute, International Education Journal 5, no. Digest of education statistics in testing and admissions report for the academic year of Taub Center.
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Forest, and Philip G. Altbach, Dordrecht: Springer. Accessed October 20, World Bank. Accessed April 25, The Future Role of Civil Society. World Scenario Series. When identifying challenges and prospects for civic education, the impact of historical factors is also considered.
In short, the use of more interactive and innovative teaching methods, both formal and informal, is essential for the eradication of out-dated learning approaches. The findings of this study suggest that the civic education curriculum, as a major factor in keeping young Azerbaijanis civically engaged, must be reviewed. In addition, an analysis of textbooks reveals that inadequacies and disparities exist in the content of textbooks when it comes to educational goals and international norms.
In this way, this study suggests the establishment of a system to ensure the quality of civic education to facilitate progress in key civic skills. Introduction The concept of civic engagement and youth citizenship has been a key focus of research, policy, and practice Amna As a broad concept, civic education promotes the skills and virtues necessary for citizenship, promoting modern civic values, critical thinking, and autonomous decision- making.
More recently, public participation has been considered as a crucial element of sustainable development in any society. In the modern world, where global challenges grow and need to be addressed, the importance of civic education should be acknowledged as a tool to develop active citizens who are able to understand global challenges and changes. Taking into account the fact that civic values and habits are easier to influence at a younger age, the process of civic learning continues at even the earliest stages of life.
Robust national identity and roots help global citizens identify themselves and become empowered members of society Usman However, in Azerbaijan, there is no subject explicitly dedicated to civic education. Thus, civic knowledge must be integrated into the core subjects in schools and other educational institutions.
In this study, I explore the process of civic education in Azerbaijan by reviewing the elements of civic education in the current curricula. An interest in the civic engagement and its integration in the educational systems stems from my own experience with both Azerbaijani and international education systems. In this regard, given the importance of the civic mission of education and the role of young people in the development of society, the issue of civic engagement in education must be further promoted to establish a sense of belonging to a shared community.
Therefore, civic engagement is one of the core missions of educational institutions, which can be developed through the introduction of various engagement mechanisms focusing on the cross-curricular approach. Though the need for civic education is highlighted to in the educational framework, little systematic attention is given to the adequate implementation of civic education practices. My main hypothesis is that the lack of interactive teaching methods, the fact-based approach to the civic education, and the underdeveloped civic framework, have caused to a low number of civically conscious and engaged citizens in Azerbaijan.
The study will primarily focus on the Azerbaijani context through analyzing current practices, as well as possible historical factors that have influenced the current framework for civic education. Literature Review Civic education is an increasingly prominent issue in discourse in the field of education.
The reason for the high interest is in the rapid changes in some countries thanks to globalization, mainly where democratic structures are evolving and developing Kymlicka et al. For a long time, societies have been interested in the tools and methods for preparing young people for citizenship Branson , and school-based civic education has been suggested to encourage youth participation Feldman et al.
A tradition of civic education existed in Ancient Greece, where the city was considered as an educational community Crittenden et al. This view considered education as a formative and life-long process, which aimed to form citizens as an asset to the people around them and, most importantly, to the state Crittenden et al.
Moreover, medieval thinkers firmly believed that good government and good citizenship are closely related Crittenden et al. However, during the s and s, questions concerning civics education were overlooked Crittenden et al. Today, although most would agree that this topic is an important one, the field encompasses diverse ideological conceptions regarding citizenship in the democratic state.
The differing conceptions produce educational plans, which differ to a significant degree Cohen The idea behind the concept of civic education is that people participate in improving the well- being of societies through individual or collective actions ICP Building capacity to act as engaged members of society is an essential goal within the educational sphere Ehrilch ; Jacoby Thus, students who practice civic engagement in an educational environment become more civically involved throughout their lives.
The form shapes of formal or informal involvement Silverman As a result, a sense of desperation began to emerge among civic educators and their supporters, who struggled to remain relevant Williams In this respect, there is a need to create proper mechanisms to promote the significance of civic engagement.
It can be argued that if civic engagement begins in adolescence, it can continue throughout the lifespan Finlay et al. Therefore, the development of civic engagement should not be underestimated. Apparently, the civic education should expand beyond the classroom environment. Components of good civic education Which are the essential components of civic education relevant to the democratic society?
Civic knowledge can be seen as a critical component of civic education Branson Civic action requires civic knowledge, which means holding responsible opinions and acting upon them Muirhead n. It means knowing how to identify and inform yourself about issues, explore and evaluate possible solutions, and then act to resolve problems. It demands that you know how to interact respectfully with others.
Another integral element of civic education is civic skills, both intellectual and participatory Branson Civic skills are necessary to participate as active and responsible citizens in the democratic countries. They are essential for critical thinking and collective action, and they include speaking, listening, collaboration, community organizing, public advocacy, and the ability to collect and process information Guardian of Democracy Participatory skills include interacting, monitoring, and influencing Branson The development of participatory skills during the early grades is important, as it continues throughout the school years Branson Many scholars claim that schools can be an efficient way to prepare students for engagement in civil society by teaching civic content and skills, ensuring an open classroom setting for discussions Purta Thus, if citizens are willing to influence political life of the country, they must develop their participatory skills.
Civic dispositions are another integral element of civic education. The term refers to the traits of private and public domains in maintaining democracy Branson Personal dispositions relate to a concern for others' rights, well-being, and justice Guardian of Democracy Although a number of institutions help to develop civic skills and knowledge, schools have a particular responsibility for the development of civic competencies.
Modern forms of civic education Schools have a great responsibility in teaching civic education since ultimately young people spend a large amount of their time there. Civic learning among school students depends on the content, design, and manner of presentation of their lessons. The delivery of civic education in Azerbaijan is not presented deliberately, relevant mechanisms need to be taken into account to shape a proper civic education framework.
With this in mind, below I briefly discuss some different forms of civic education and their characteristics. Talking with and listening to other people about public problems can be a major practice in the civic education. That is a cognitively and ethically demanding activity that can be learned from experience Crittenden et al. Service learning, which integrates classroom instruction with work within the community, is a standard method of civic education.
Ideally, students take their experience and observations from service into their academic work and use their academic research and discussions to inform their service Crittenden et al. Volunteering is another form of civic responsibility, which involves the devoting time without the expectation of the monetary compensation.
Volunteering gives citizens an opportunity to share their skills and talents, as well as to learn new skills while helping those in need of assistance. Action civics, another learning module, includes voting, working, or serving Crittenden et al. It also involves attending and participating in political meetings; organizing and running meetings, rallies, protests and fund drives; gathering signatures for bills, ballots, initiatives, and recalls; serving on local elected and appointed boards; starting or participating in political clubs; deliberating with fellow citizens about social and political issues central to their lives; and pursuing 1.
ESS used weights for the country size; PA not weighted. ESS first release with twenty countries in November Young people nowadays are less likely to participate in institutional forms of participation i. Needless to say, a number of factors can influence the rates of participation, depending on the country.
As this study targets education specifically, it is beyond the scope of this paper to analyze other possible factors influencing levels of political participation. However, further research may choose to address the diverse factors affecting the level of civic engagement. If civic education aims to strengthen and complement the development of character, civic conciseness can be developed through discussion Branson In terms of teaching and developing civic skills in youth, the ability to read information critically and search for factual information is essential to being a participating citizen Patrick Researchers have also found that involvement in extra-curricular activities leads to higher rates of civic engagement, such as the likeliness to vote in the future Menezes Indeed, extra- curricular activities are seen as one way to introduce informal learning methods within and outside the school settings Brooks Activities based on practice, high-level thinking skills, communication, and creativity are fundamental in developing current and future active citizens Keser et al.
The Azerbaijani context In the following section, I will further analyze the current forms of civic education in Azerbaijan and explore how these methods are conceptualized in the country. Civic education is viewed as a pillar of democracy, and it is deemed crucial in maintaining democratic institutions. The Azerbaijani education system has experienced a number of difficult periods throughout its history.
Foremost, the country has been challenged to break with outdated approaches to civic education that was based on the authoritarian socialist principles adopted in the Soviet era. Following the collapse of Soviet Union, Azerbaijani education system faced several problems because of economic decline in the country. Economic turmoil combined with political instability created obstacles in implementing educational reforms during the s. Furthermore, after the collapse of Soviet Union, the resulting ideological vacuum began to be filled with various tendencies and concepts Bachman et al.
Azerbaijani citizens were trying to understand the ongoing social and political transformations in order to redefine and recompose 'new social, political and ideological identities' Bachman et al. However, despite the obstacles facing the education sector, statements by policymakers suggest that Azerbaijan is determined to deal with the issues and implement reforms in the sector, in order to meet international standards and provide educational services that will allow young Azerbaijanis to compete in the global labor market.
Each nation seeks to train its citizens politically, some more purposefully and directly than others. Despite the focus on science in the Soviet educational system, civic education was equally vital in the 'training' of Soviet citizens Harasymiw Producing well-informed and educated citizens, who are able to participate in the various spheres of social, cultural and public life of the country during the Soviet era was a key educational goal Nozhko et al.
Furthermore, patriotism and internationalism were essential traits in the concept of Soviet citizenship Harasymiw With this in mind, knowledge of history, economics and about the nation itself was important in shaping loyal citizens Harasymiw It is reasonable to suggest that knowledge of history is one of the major components of civic education.
Thus, knowledge of a nation's history is crucial since it is the foundation for obtaining a sense of 'civics'. Education Law Civic education is different from other school subjects because it goes beyond knowledge of a specific subject matter. At that time, classroom lectures formed the core of teaching techniques but were counter-productive Harasymiw From personal experience, I can observe that the importance of these subjects was underestimated during school years.
Besides, there were no mechanisms or classroom activities to foster dialogue among students. Due to the need to foster national values and patriotism, history as a school subject got a lot of attention during the post-Soviet period. I have observed that national history is one of the core subjects taught in both school and higher education. However, it is often understandably assumed that this approach can result in a primarily passive understanding of political views and principles among students Kazimzade n.
Under this approach, knowledge of geography is deemed essential in enabling students to familiarize themselves with their community, country, and the world Harasymiw However, emphasizing subjects such as history and geography does not require any significant engagement of students in reflecting on their civic views and attitudes.
The content-based approach to civic education that prevails in Azerbaijan may hinder the transmission of knowledge that takes place more effectively through more interactive methods. This is primarily because Soviet educators gave much more importance to the content in the process of transmitting knowledge Harasymiw In terms of the methodology employed, while innovations in educational methods are usually allowed in Azerbaijan, 'textbooks, syllabi, and curricula are not attributed to the competence of school.
In this sense, we can suggest that state control over the content of the civic education curriculum can hinder the shift of paradigms in civic education. Several internationally-funded programs in Azerbaijan seek to integrate innovative methods and notions into the civic education curriculum.
However, none of these projects moved beyond the pilot stage Kazimzade n. For instance, the Civics Education Curriculum Development and Teacher Training program aimed to enhance the quality of civic education by developing a new curriculum and providing resources, and allowed educators to collaborate with their American colleagues.
However, the scope of the project was limited since it was a pilot program Silova Deliberating in Democracy, operated between and , was an international initiative for civic education. Despite some efforts, there is a lack of both civic participation and democratic consciousness today in Azerbaijan Bachman et al. According to a report conducted in cooperation with the University of Geneva and scholars from South Caucasus, citizens do not care about parliamentary elections.
This low level of political and civic participation can be addressed through education, or through formal or informal actions. There is an evidence to suggest that in the countries where social and economic changes take place, educational reforms move at a different pace Bachman et al. In this respect, various projects meeting the needs of contemporary society should be implemented.
These projects can be designed in such a way that students can increase their potential to engage in wider society. Moreover, there is a need to establish a relevant legislative framework to promote civic engagement through education. In this sense, we must review appropriate methods for including civic engagement in the school curricula, taking into account recent tendencies and future perspectives.
Approaches to civic education Various approaches to citizenship education exist in different countries. The subject can be delivered as part of another subject, as a stand-alone subject, or using a cross-curricular approach CEE Research has found that greater efforts are required to strengthen the competency of teachers in promoting civic education. It is not still common to train as a teacher specializing in this area - this type of training exists only in Austria and the United Kingdom CEE However, given that teachers are considered as role models for democratic citizenship, they should model the skills and virtues of democratic citizenship in their teaching as well as their relationship with each other and with the students Huddleston However, few countries have defined a set of key competencies in connection with civics and citizenship that all teachers should acquire CEE They call the subject 'Man and Society,' which is similar to the name given to the subject in Azerbaijan.
However, I argue that in Azerbaijan's case, both the representation and the content of the subject differ. As part of the research, I analyze textbooks used in the Azerbaijani education system in order to shed light on which areas of knowledge are being transmitted, and on how compatible that knowledge is with educational goals. Knowledge on key civic competencies must be taught in such a way that it will bring about participation in civil society, in the community, and in political life.
In this context, 'active citizenship' is interpreted very broadly — it is not restricted simply to the political dimension as expressed in conventional forms of voting, political lobbying, and membership of parties and NGOs. As previous studies have focused on current legislation and curricula, for this study, I chose to analyze the content of the textbooks used in school curricula in order to better perceive how various values are transmitted.
The documents that were the subjects of my study are a series named Man and Society, which is taught in the secondary school. Analyzing the content of these books will enable me to explore to what extent these books teach civic values to students. Furthermore, since one of the primary goals of education in Azerbaijan is ostensible to develop active civic positions, the subject and method of teaching were analyzed from various perspectives. In particular, I evaluate how far these methods align with best practice.
Most researchers view content analysis as a flexible method to analyze data Cavanagh The type of analysis can include various approaches - intuitive, interpretive, strict, or systematic Rosengren Importantly, the qualitative content analysis focuses on the contextual meaning of the content.
This study also has some limitations. Primarily, this is due to the scarcity of local studies in this area, which makes it difficult for me to analyze my data against other similar local studies. Data Analysis In this section, I analyze the content of school textbooks named Man and Society used in eighth to eleventh grade in Azerbaijan.
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Panorama Park da 3 otaga duzelme Super temir olunmus menzil Satilir. Ehmedli qes. Kiyev proyektdir. Yeni Temir olunub ve yasayis olmayib. Padval qurudur. Qeydiyyatda Hec Kim Yoxdur. Doseme diktdir. Orta blokda yerlesir. Hezi Aslanov M. Das Leningrad proyektdir. Orta blokdadir. Bos evdir. Qiymetin de Endrim olacaq. Eksprimental proyektdir. Doseme taxtadir. Binanin yaxinliqinda Mekteb ,Usaq baxcasi.
Tavanin hundurluyu 3. Xetai rayonu Neapol dairesi Venesiya sadliq sarayinin yaxinliginda G. Mehmandarov kucesinde yerlesen 9 mertebeli binanin 7-ci mertebesinde, 2 otaqli leninqrad lahiyeli ,60 kv-liq temirli menzil satilir. Binada su, qaz,. Nermanov metrosuna 5 deq mesafesi var. Mekteb baxca bazar binan yaxinligindadir. Kohne tikili 9 mertebedir menzil 9 cu mertebede yerlesir. Bina yeni temirden cixib binada 2 yeni lift fealiyyet gosderir. As of , the district had a population of , In the east, the district is washed by the Caspian Sea , and in the west it approaches Talysh Mountains , Burovar ridge.
Height of the territory reaches metres 3, ft. There are mineral and geothermal springs in Masally. The amount of annual precipitation is — millimetres 24—31 in. Vilash is the largest river of the district. There are broad-leaved forests of Girkan type- chestnut-leaved oak , hornbeam , beech , Persian ironwood tree , Girkan boxwood, Caucasian persimmon , medlar and others in the mountainous part of the district. Total area of the district's forests equals 16, hectares 41, acres.
There are villages in Masally. Masally district was established in Formerly, the territory of the district was part of Arkevan area of Lankaran District. Before that, the territory of the district belonged to ancient Manna and Atropatena states. It was included in Talysh Khanate in the middle of the 18th century.
The center of the district is the city of Masally. The average population density is people per km 2. Boradigah township , Badalan , Arkevan , Banbashi , Gizilagaj, Teze Alvadi , and Chakhirli villages are the other largest population aggregates. The total area of the district is ha. Municipality owns 18, hectares 46, acres Agriculture, construction, industry, transportation, and telecommunication are the cores of economy in Masally district.
In January—December , there was thousand manats worth of goods and service production in the Masally industry. In , cargo transportation by automobiles was thousand ton. It is thousand ton more than the previous year. Transportation of passengers was thousand persons, which is thousand people more than the previous years. The total worth of transportation was ,4 thousand manats in In , the total worth of telecommunication services was thousand manats.
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