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Investing trends 2016 for optical glasses

investing trends 2016 for optical glasses

Historical constant prices, forecast constant prices Source: Euromonitor, *Eyewear data Essilor Investor day. There was a significant trend for eye care use and difficulty affording eyeglasses from to In fully adjusted models, Americans were. Rising investment for enhancing the distribution channel by the manufacturer is expected to foster the market growth of eyewear over the forecast period. FOREX EXCHANGE BONUS Explore our research reports, white papers, i see the it is important. From this release, its quality contents. Connector for Configuration. In Interface snapshot, with a simple your settings Have.

Vision insurance is usually purchased as a supplement to general medical plans to help offset costs of routine eye examinations, prescription lenses, and frames. The Great Recession, a period of economic decline from to , was associated with financial instability and consequent loss of health insurance for many Americans.

However, it is important to note that the ACA does not include adult vision care as a mandated essential health benefit category. Likewise, traditional Medicaid makes optometry services and eyeglasses optional benefits and, thus, state dependent. This study has limitations. First, our estimates of VI and eye care outcomes are based on self-reported data that are implicitly subject to recall bias. Additionally, since VI is self-reported, by definition, those individuals classified as having VI are more likely to have used eye care.

Second, the NHIS study population does not include residents in long-term care facilities, the incarcerated, and persons on active duty, and therefore, results are not generalizable to them. Third, all participants, irrespective of the need for eyeglasses, were queried about difficulty experienced with affording eyeglasses when needed, meaning that the denominator not only included participants that did not have difficulty purchasing eyeglasses when needed but also participants who felt they did not need eyeglasses.

This likely attenuated estimates of the proportion of participants reporting difficulty affording eyeglasses. Lastly, this affordability question does not provide detail on what proportion of individuals had difficulty affording eyeglasses for reading vs for distance, nor does it capture any difficulty around affording contact lenses.

Additionally, the role of rates of cataract and refractive surgery on any changes in the need for, and therein the affordability of, eyeglasses remains to be elucidated. In conclusion, we estimated trends in use of eye care and affordability of eyeglasses in the United States from to and noted decreased difficulty affording eyeglasses from to while finding continued unmet eye care needs among some subsets of Americans.

Since enhancing the affordability of eye care has not adequately changed whether certain groups use the care they need, focusing future health care priorities on further expanding the availability and accessibility of eye care in addition to making them more affordable to the most vulnerable may be important factors to consider.

Use of eye care services shown by age category on a magnified scale. JAMA Ophthalmology. JAMA Ophthalmol. Published online Jan Frick , PhD, 2 Jinan B. Saaddine , MD, 3 David S. Friedman , MD, 1 and Bonnielin K. Swenor , PhD 1. Kevin D. Jinan B. David S. Bonnielin K. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Corresponding Author: Bonnielin K.

Received Aug 6; Accepted Nov 7. Copyright American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Key Points Question What are the trends in using eye care and affording eyeglasses among Americans 18 years and older from to ? Findings In this analysis of National Health Interview Survey data including 9 annual cross-sectional population-based samples, decreased difficulty affording eyeglasses was observed from to Abstract Importance Understanding eye care use over time is essential to estimate continued unmet health care needs and help guide future public health priorities.

Objective To update trends in using eye care and affording eyeglasses in the United States. Exposures Visual impairment, defined as self-reported difficulty seeing despite wearing eyeglasses. Main Outcomes and Measures Outcome measures included visits to an eye care professional and inability to afford eyeglasses when needed in the past year. Conclusions and Relevance These data indicate decreased difficulty affording eyeglasses among Americans from to , possibly related to economic recovery and health care reform.

Introduction Visual impairment VI has negative implications at the individual, community, and national levels. Outcome Measures Eye care use measures were based on self-report. Statistical Analysis The cross-sectional design of the NHIS does not permit longitudinal analysis, as the same individuals are not sequentially followed up over time.

Table 1. Open in a separate window. A poverty-income ratio score of 1. Eye Care Use in the Full Population In unadjusted analyses, the trends for eye care use and difficulty affording eyeglasses were significant from to Figure 1 eFigures 1 and 2 in the Supplement. Figure 1. Use of Eye Care Services and Difficulty Affording Eyeglasses Percentage of the US population that self-reported that they visited an eye care professional in the past year and that they were unable to afford eyeglasses when needed in the past year.

Table 2. Multivariable Regression Analysis in Full Population. Eye Care Use by VI Status In unadjusted analyses, among Americans with self-reported VI, the trend in eye care use was not statistically significant Figure 2 A , but there was a significant trend in difficulty affording eyeglasses from to Figure 2 B.

Figure 2. Table 3. Abbreviation: OR, odds ratio. Discussion We examined trends in using eye care and affording eyeglasses among adults 18 years and older in the United States over a 9-year period using nationally representative data. Limitations This study has limitations.

Conclusions In conclusion, we estimated trends in use of eye care and affordability of eyeglasses in the United States from to and noted decreased difficulty affording eyeglasses from to while finding continued unmet eye care needs among some subsets of Americans. Notes Supplement. Click here for additional data file. References 1. Function and visual impairment in a population-based study of older adults: the SEE project: Salisbury Eye Evaluation.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Age-related eye disease, visual impairment, and survival: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. Am J Ophthalmol. Economic impact of visual impairment and blindness in the United States. Accessed January 22, Perceived barriers to care and attitudes about vision and eye care: focus groups with older African Americans and eye care providers. Disparities in access to medical care for individuals with vision impairment.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol. Accessed on January 22, Analysis of Health Surveys. Influence of socio-demographic characteristics on eye care expenditure: data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey National study of barriers to timely primary care and emergency department utilization among Medicaid beneficiaries. Ann Emerg Med. Accessed May 10, The anterior chamber angle is different in different racial groups: a gonioscopic study.

Eye Lond. Global vision impairment due to uncorrected presbyopia. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Is your test, item, or service covered? Sex differences in medical care utilization: an empirical investigation.

J Health Soc Behav. Eye care in the United States: do we deliver to high-risk people who can benefit most from it? Office visits to ophthalmologists and other physicians for eye care among the US population, Public Health Rep. The Great Recession and health: people, populations, and disparities.

Holahan J. The recession and health insurance coverage. Health Aff Millwood. Accessed June 6, Curr Diab Rep. What Marketplace health insurance plans cover. Blind among those with visual impairment. In the non-VI group, the trends for eye care use and difficulty affording eyeglasses were significant from to In other unadjusted analyses exploring differences in each survey year compared with , there were no changes in eye care use among the VI group.

However, among Americans without VI, increased use was noted from onwards No significant changes in difficulty affording eyeglasses was seen from to in the VI group, while a decrease was seen in the non-VI group from onwards 4. In fully adjusted models, compared with , there were no significant differences in use of eye care or eyeglasses affordability from to among Americans with self-reported VI Table 3. Among the group without VI, Americans were less likely to use eye care in compared with OR, 0.

Americans without VI were also less likely to report difficulty affording eyeglasses from onwards OR, 0. We examined trends in using eye care and affording eyeglasses among adults 18 years and older in the United States over a 9-year period using nationally representative data. Our results indicate that there was decreased difficulty affording eyeglasses from to compared with Figure 1 Table 2. While it is difficult to predict how meaningful these small changes are unadjusted percentage, 8.

No significant change in use of eye care services was noted from to Irrespective of survey year, Americans were generally more likely to see an eye care professional and less likely to experience difficulty affording eyeglasses if they were older, white, had higher levels of education and income, and had vision insurance.

Women and Americans with VI were more likely to use eye care services but less likely to be able to afford eyeglasses when needed. Since this was a 2-part question, this finding may be because of fewer people with less than high school education needing or perceiving a need for eyeglasses.

Alternatively, it may be that those with some college education are less likely to have insurance coverage while those with less than high school education may be more likely to be covered by Medicaid, 14 which, depending on the state, may include coverage for eyeglasses. It is possible that the relatively higher prevalence of myopia in Asian populations 16 may mean that they are more likely to prioritize purchasing insurance that will cover their eyeglasses.

However, it is hard to explain why black individuals may experience less difficulty. We also found that the oldest age group aged 65 years and older was the least likely to have difficulty affording eyeglasses, suggesting that this age group with high prevalence of presbyopia 17 is likely purchasing inexpensive reading eyeglasses easily found in department stores in the United States. Additionally, Medicare Part B helps pay for corrective lenses following certain types of cataract surgery.

Sex differences in health-seeking behavior and health care use have undergone considerable scrutiny. The finding that women were more likely to experience difficulty affording eyeglasses when needed than men despite being more likely to have visited an eye care professional that year may be because of complex sex disparities in income and economic decision making that are beyond the scope of this analysis.

Our finding that those with self-reported VI were also more likely to have seen an eye care professional while being more likely to have difficulty affording eyeglasses is in line with previous literature. Spencer et al 8 showed that individuals with VI and blind individuals reported having more difficulty accessing health care, including necessary medical care, prescription medications, and dental care, from to , citing financial and transportation barriers, inadequate insurance coverage, and service refusal by health care professionals.

It might follow that these difficulties translate to procurement of prescription eyeglasses as well. This study highlights that while existing policies may allow those with VI to access an eye care professional, there is still a considerable gap in getting them the eyeglasses that they need. Zhang et al 20 reported that individuals with vision insurance were more likely than those without vision insurance to use eye care services, consistent with our findings.

However, they were less likely to afford eyeglasses when needed. Vision insurance is usually purchased as a supplement to general medical plans to help offset costs of routine eye examinations, prescription lenses, and frames. The Great Recession, a period of economic decline from to , was associated with financial instability and consequent loss of health insurance for many Americans.

However, it is important to note that the ACA does not include adult vision care as a mandated essential health benefit category. Likewise, traditional Medicaid makes optometry services and eyeglasses optional benefits and, thus, state dependent. This study has limitations. First, our estimates of VI and eye care outcomes are based on self-reported data that are implicitly subject to recall bias.

Additionally, since VI is self-reported, by definition, those individuals classified as having VI are more likely to have used eye care. Second, the NHIS study population does not include residents in long-term care facilities, the incarcerated, and persons on active duty, and therefore, results are not generalizable to them. Third, all participants, irrespective of the need for eyeglasses, were queried about difficulty experienced with affording eyeglasses when needed, meaning that the denominator not only included participants that did not have difficulty purchasing eyeglasses when needed but also participants who felt they did not need eyeglasses.

This likely attenuated estimates of the proportion of participants reporting difficulty affording eyeglasses. Lastly, this affordability question does not provide detail on what proportion of individuals had difficulty affording eyeglasses for reading vs for distance, nor does it capture any difficulty around affording contact lenses.

Additionally, the role of rates of cataract and refractive surgery on any changes in the need for, and therein the affordability of, eyeglasses remains to be elucidated. In conclusion, we estimated trends in use of eye care and affordability of eyeglasses in the United States from to and noted decreased difficulty affording eyeglasses from to while finding continued unmet eye care needs among some subsets of Americans.

Since enhancing the affordability of eye care has not adequately changed whether certain groups use the care they need, focusing future health care priorities on further expanding the availability and accessibility of eye care in addition to making them more affordable to the most vulnerable may be important factors to consider.

Corresponding Author: Bonnielin K. Published Online: January 24, Author Contributions: Dr Varadaraj had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content : Frick, Saaddine, Friedman, Swenor.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported. Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this study are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. By continuing to use our site, or clicking "Continue," you are agreeing to our Cookie Policy Continue. Figure 1. View Large Download. Figure 2. Table 1. Table 2. Multivariable Regression Analysis in Full Population.

Table 3. Function and visual impairment in a population-based study of older adults: the SEE project: Salisbury Eye Evaluation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. PubMed Google Scholar. Age-related eye disease, visual impairment, and survival: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. Am J Ophthalmol. Economic impact of visual impairment and blindness in the United States. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy People vision.

Accessed January 22, Perceived barriers to care and attitudes about vision and eye care: focus groups with older African Americans and eye care providers. Disparities in access to medical care for individuals with vision impairment. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. National Center for Health Statistics. Accessed on January 22, US Census Bureau. Current Population Survey: subject definitions. Analysis of Health Surveys.

Influence of socio-demographic characteristics on eye care expenditure: data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey National study of barriers to timely primary care and emergency department utilization among Medicaid beneficiaries. Ann Emerg Med. List of Medicaid benefits. Accessed May 10, The anterior chamber angle is different in different racial groups: a gonioscopic study.

Eye Lond. Global vision impairment due to uncorrected presbyopia. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Is your test, item, or service covered? Sex differences in medical care utilization: an empirical investigation. J Health Soc Behav. Eye care in the United States: do we deliver to high-risk people who can benefit most from it?

Office visits to ophthalmologists and other physicians for eye care among the US population, Public Health Rep. The Great Recession and health: people, populations, and disparities. Holahan J. The recession and health insurance coverage. Health Aff Millwood.

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Workday ipo prospectus Table 2. Alternatively, it may be that those with some college education are less likely to have insurance coverage while those with less than high school education may be more likely to be covered by Medicaid, 14 which, depending on the state, may include coverage for eyeglasses. North America. Our Report Looks Like This. Sign in to access free PDF. Market size and forecast. Black, Asian, and Hispanic individuals were less likely to use eye care than non-Hispanic white individuals, and Asian and black individuals were less likely to have difficulty affording eyeglasses.
Investing trends 2016 for optical glasses 25

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Ciena's stock price has been anything but consistent over the past several years, but if the company's turns out as good as management says it'll be, then this year may be the time when Ciena investors finally benefit from the growing fiber-optics industry. Acacia provides high-speed interconnection products across the world, for long-haul, metro, and data markets. The company believes that Q3 is more than just a one-off quarter, as well, and expanded its manufacturing processes to keep up with continued demand.

Acacia is also smartly diversifying its revenues across a handful of companies. On top of all that, Acacia's balance sheet is free of debt. It's worth mentioning that each of these companies will likely experience cyclical highs and lows, as cable and telecom companies build up their fiber-optic networks and then slowly pull back.

But right now, the trend for the industry is pointing toward more fiber-optic expansion, and each company could benefit as a result. Cost basis and return based on previous market day close. Calculated by average return of all stock recommendations since inception of the Stock Advisor service in February of Discounted offers are only available to new members. Calculated by Time-Weighted Return since Volatility profiles based on trailing-three-year calculations of the standard deviation of service investment returns.

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